William R. Millington

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Glycyl-L-glutamine (Gly-L-Gln), or beta-endorphin-(30-31) [beta-End-(30-31)], is synthesized through the post-translational processing of beta-End-(1-31). Evidence that gly-L-gln is a prominent end product of beta-End-(1-31) processing in cardioregulatory regions of rat brain prompted us to investigate whether it modulates the cardiorespiratory depression(More)
Glycyl-glutamine (Gly-Gln) is an inhibitory dipeptide synthesized from beta-endorphin(1-31). Previously, we showed that Gly-Gln inhibits morphine conditioned place preference, tolerance, dependence and withdrawal. In this study, we tested whether Gly-Gln's inhibitory activity extends to other rewarding drugs, specifically nicotine. Rats were conditioned(More)
The primary cell type of the intermediate lobe (IL) of the rat pituitary is a polyhedral secretory cell with a smooth ovoid nucleus. The results of this study demonstrate, however, that IL melanotropes are a heterogeneous cell population. Melanotropes differed in the tinctorial properties of their cytoplasm; some cells appeared distinctly darker, others(More)
We recently reported that the preoptic anterior hypothalamic area (POA) mediates the hypotensive response evoked by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, we investigated how the inflammatory signal induced by LPS reaches the POA. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and abdominal perivagal lidocaine administration, or lidocaine injection into the nucleus tractus(More)
We studied the transport of 14C-caffeine across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by measuring brain 14C:3H ratios five seconds after rats received the caffeine, with 3H2O, by intracarotid injection. Caffeine was found to enter the brain by both simple diffusion and saturable, carrier-mediated transport. This latter observation suggested to us that caffeine's(More)
It is widely assumed that LPS lowers arterial pressure during sepsis by stimulating release of TNF-alpha and other vasoactive mediators from macrophages. However, recent data from this and other laboratories have shown that LPS hypotension can be prevented by inhibiting afferent impulse flow in the vagus nerve, by blocking neuronal activity in the nucleus(More)
Competition by deanol (dimethylaminoethanol) with choline for uptake from the bloodstream into the brain was demonstrated by simultaneous intracarotid administration of carbon 14-labeled choline with deanol (plus tritiated water and indium 113m, to calculate a brain uptake index) and by measuring the brain uptake of 14C-labeled choline mixed with sera from(More)
Recent reports show that central beta-endorphin (1-31) injection augments the volitional intake of alcohol. Correspondingly, alcohol drinking stimulates beta-endorphin (1-31) release from the hypothalamus of the rat. Glycyl-l-glutamine (Gly-Gln) is produced in beta-endorphin-containing neurons and is co-released with beta-endorphin(1-31) and other(More)
Rats received 3H-mannitol, which marks the intactness of the blood-brain barrier, and 14C-glutamate or 14C-aspartate by intracardiac injection after oral gavage with water, monosodium glutamate, monosodium aspartate, or sodium chloride (doses equiosmolar to 4 g/kg monosodium glutamate). Thirty min later, various brain regions (e.g., cerebellum, cortex,(More)
These experiments examined the potency of choline as a cholinergic agonist at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in rat brain and peripheral tissues. Choline stimulated the contraction of isolated smooth muscle preparations of the stomach fundus, urinary bladder and trachea and reduced the frequency of spontaneous contractions of the right atrium at(More)