William R. Kuhn

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Calculations indicate that the maximum daily solar radiation reaching the Martian surface is about 325 cal/cm2 during southern hemisphere summer at latitude of about 40°S. In the ultraviolet region of the spectrum, the radiation reaching the surface at wavelengths greater than 2800 Å is within 10% of the radiation incident on the atmosphere. There is(More)
Proposed evolutionary histories of solar luminosity, atmospheric carbon dioxide amounts, Earth rotation rate, and continent formation have been used to generate a time evolution of Earth's surface temperature. While speculative because of uncertainties in the input parameters, such a study does help to prioritize the areas of most concern to paleoclimatic(More)
A one-dimensional seasonal energy balance climate model has been developed for the Martian surface and coupled to a model of CO2 distribution between atmosphere, regolith, and polar caps. This model takes into account the greenhouse warming of carbon dioxide, the meridional transport of heat, the CO2 condensation and sublimation cycle, and its adsorption(More)
We study the interactions between the geochemical cycles of carbon and long-term changes in climate. Climate change is studied with a simple, zonally averaged energy balance climate model that includes the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide explicitly. The geochemical model balances the rate of consumption of carbon dioxide in silicate weathering against(More)
Photochemical calculations indicate that if NH(3) outgassed from Titan it should have been converted to a dense N(2) atmosphere during the lifetime of the satellite. A crucial step in the process involves a gas phase reaction of N(2)H(4) with H. The most favorable conditions for this step would be the intermediate production of a CH(4)-H(2) greenhouse(More)
This study used a mid-latitude measurement of diurnal variations in the boundary layer to simulate thermal radiation for a clear sky. The emissivity growth method was used for the absorption by the five major greenhouse gases averaged over 10 cm -• from line by line calculations. The vertical resolution of the model was 0.6 mb at the ground surface, and(More)
A fundamental question in our understanding of the conditions on the early Earth that led to the synthesis of organic molecules of increasing complexity, and eventually to the first living system, concerns the chemical composition of the prebiotic early atmosphere. For many years, it was thought that the early atmosphere contained large quantities of(More)
The study of color polymorphisms (CP) has provided profound insights into the maintenance of genetic variation in natural populations. We here offer the first evidence for an elaborate wing polymorphism in the Neotropical damselfly genus Polythore, which consists of 21 described species, distributed along the eastern slopes of the Andes in South America.(More)
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