William R Eckberg

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Egg activation in all animals evidently requires the synthesis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) by phospholipase C (PLC). Depending on the organism, InsP(3) elicits either calcium oscillations or a single wave, which in turn initiates development. A soluble component in boar sperm that activates(More)
Increases in the intracellular free calcium concentration are of great importance to the initiation of development in deuterostomes. Their involvement has not yet been clearly defined in protostomes. We used endogenous ligands (IP3, cADPR, ryanodine and NAADP) and pharmacological agents (thapsigargin [Tg], thimerosal, caffeine and heparin) to study smooth(More)
The human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (ER positive), ZR 75-1 (ER positive) and MDA-MB 231 (ER negative) form solid tumors within one week following inoculation into athymic nude mice. Tumor formation by MCF-7 and ZR 75-1 cells was dependent upon estrogen, whereas MDA-MB 231 cells formed tumors in ovariectomized mice with or without supplemental estrogen.(More)
PTPH1 is a human protein-tyrosine phosphatase with homology to the band 4.1 superfamily of cytoskeleton-associated proteins. Here, we report the purification and biochemical characterization of this enzyme from baculovirus-infected insect cells. The purified protein exhibited an apparent M(r) of 120,000 on SDS gels. The native enzyme dephosphorylated both(More)
We report cellular hypertrophy, mitochondrial proliferation and differentiation, myofibrillogenesis, and junctional maturation in cardiac progenitor cells between the 8 and 26-somite stages of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. However, coordinated contraction in embryonic cardiomyocytes did not occur until 26-somite stage when 'developed' intercalated discs,(More)
Transient waves of Ca2+ release cross-fertilizing deuterostome eggs from the point of sperm entry to its antipode and provide much of the activating stimulus for the egg. Based on several indirect lines of experimental evidence, it was proposed that protostome eggs are activated by a prolonged uptake of Ca2+ from the medium due to sperm-induced membrane(More)
Intracellular calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum is a hallmark at egg activation of both vertebrates and invertebrates. This fertilization-associated calcium release results from generation of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) by one or more phospholipases C (PLC). We characterized Chaetopterus PLCbeta and gamma by(More)
Blocks to polyspermy may act either at the level of the egg plasma membrane to prevent gamete fusion or at the level of egg surface coats to prevent gamete attachment. The present study was undertaken to determine what type(s) of block(s) to polyspermy exist in Chaetopterus. The results showed the existence of both types. A rapid block acts at the plasma(More)
In frog oocytes, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, ERK) leads to activation of cdc2 and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). By contrast, in starfish, MAPK is activated after GVBD. Here we have examined the relative involvements of MAPK and cdc2 in GVBD of Chaetopterus oocytes. MAPK was rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated (within(More)
Binding of estrogen to its receptor (ER) activates early genes that drive responsive cells through the proliferative phase. Earlier studies to evaluate the expression of protooncogenes, growth factors, growth factor receptor and steroid hormone receptor gene activities in the rat uterine system indicated complex pathways that involve significant 'crosstalk'(More)