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Ventricle strips from little skate (Raja erinacea), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), black dogfish (Etmopterus spinax), sea raven (Hemitripterus america-nus), cod (Gadus morhua), hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were mounted for isometric force recording. Force development was assessed as a function of external(More)
In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in how growth hormone (GH) transgenesis affects fish physiology. However, the results of these studies are often difficult to interpret because the transgenic and non-transgenic fish had very different environmental/rearing histories. This study used a stable line of size-matched GH Atlantic salmon(More)
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), 1 kg body weight, were acclimated for 1-2 months to water temperatures of either 7-8 degrees C (cold-acclimated group) or 23-24 degrees C (warm-acclimated group). Single fast fibres and small bundles of slow fibres were isolated from the myotomal muscles and chemically skinned. Force-velocity (P-V) characteristics were(More)
We compared levels of the major organic osmolytes in the muscle of elasmobranchs, including the methylamines trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), betaine and sarcosine as well as the beta-amino acids taurine and beta-alanine, and the activities of enzymes of methylamine synthesis (betaine and TMAO) in species with a wide range of urea contents. Four marine, a(More)
Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) inhabit inshore waters along the North American Atlantic coast. During the winter, these waters are frequently ice covered and can reach temperatures as low as -1.9 degrees C. To prevent freezing, smelt accumulate high levels of glycerol, which lower the freezing point via colligative means, and antifreeze proteins (AFP). The(More)
Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) avoid freezing by producing antifreeze protein (AFP) and accumulating glycerol. Glyceroneogenesis occurs in liver via a branch in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis and is activated by low temperature. Hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of fish acclimated to 8°C. Cells were incubated at warm (8°C; nonglycerol accumulating)(More)
Rainbow smelt is a small fish that accumulates glycerol in winter as a cryoprotectant when the animal is in seawater. Glycerol is synthesized in liver from different substrates that all lead to the formation of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P). This study assesses whether glycerol is produced by a direct dephosphorylation of G3P by a phosphatase (G3Pase) or by a(More)
Smelt (Osmerus mordax) were maintained at either ambient water temperature or approximately 5 degrees C and various aspects of their freeze-avoidance response were examined from early winter until early spring. Plasma levels of glycerol, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and urea were elevated by December 15 and continued to increase in fish held in ambient(More)
In winter, rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) accumulate glycerol and produce an antifreeze protein (AFP), which both contribute to freeze resistance. The role of differential gene expression in the seasonal pattern of these adaptations was investigated. First, cDNAs encoding smelt and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and(More)
A putative glucose transporter, GLUT1, is reported for Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. A combination of RT-PCR, RLM-RACE and genome walking were used to articulate a 4560 bp cDNA (GenBank accession number AY526497). It contains a 149 bp 5' UTR, a 1470 bp open reading frame and a 2941 bp 3' UTR. At the nucleotide level, the cod GLUT1 ORF shares 78.2% sequence(More)