William R. Atchley

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Biological sequences are composed of long strings of alphabetic letters rather than arrays of numerical values. Lack of a natural underlying metric for comparing such alphabetic data significantly inhibits sophisticated statistical analyses of sequences, modeling structural and functional aspects of proteins, and related problems. Herein, we use(More)
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of proteins is a group of functionally diverse transcription factors found in both plants and animals. These proteins evolved early in eukaryotic cells before the split of animals and plants, but appear to function in 'plant-specific' or 'animal-specific' processes. In animals bHLH proteins are involved in regulation(More)
In this paper, we discuss a novel scoring scheme for sequence alignments. The score of an alignment is defined as the sum of so-called weights of aligned segment pairs. A simple modification of the weight function used by the original version of the DIALIGN alignment program turns out to have a crucial advantage: it can be applied to both, global and local(More)
We present computational methods and subroutines to compute Gaussian quadrature integration formulas for arbitrary positive measures. For expensive integrands that can be factored into well-known forms, Gaussian quadrature schemes allow for efficient evaluation of high-accuracy and -precision numerical integrals, especially compared to general ad hoc(More)
Transcription factors (TFs) are essential for the regulation of gene expression and often form emergent complexes to perform vital roles in cellular processes. In this paper, we focus on the parallel Max and Mlx networks of TFs because of their critical involvement in cell cycle regulation, proliferation, growth, metabolism, and apoptosis. A(More)
Background: Advances in biotechnology offer a fast growing variety of high-throughput data for screening molecular activities of genomic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional and translational observations. However, to date, most computational and algorithmic efforts have been directed at mining data from each of these molecular levels (genomic,(More)
Glucose is a fundamental energy source for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The balance between glucose utilization and storage is integral for proper energy homeostasis, and defects are associated with several diseases, e.g. type II diabetes. In vertebrates, the transcription factor ChREBP is a major component in glucose metabolism, while its ortholog(More)
Translational and evidence based medicine can take advantage of biotechnology advances that offer a fast growing variety of high-throughput data for screening molecular activities of genomic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional and translational observations. The clinical information hidden in these data can be clarified with clinical bioinformatics(More)
MOTIVATION In a nucleotide or amino acid sequence, not all sites evolve at the same rate, due to differing selective constraints at each site. Currently in computational molecular evolution, models incorporating rate heterogeneity always share two assumptions. First, the rate of evolution at each site is assumed to be independent of every other site.(More)
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors is used as a paradigm to explore structural implications of periodicity patterns in amino acid sequence variability. A Boltzmann-Shannon entropy profile represents site-by-site amino acid variation in the bHLH domain. Spectral analysis of almost 200 bHLH sequences documents the periodic(More)