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Quantitative analyses were carried out on a large number of proteins that contain the highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix domain. Measures derived from information theory were used to examine the extent of conservation at amino acid sites within the bHLH domain as well as the extent of mutual information among sites within the domain. Using the(More)
How 'complex' or composite morphological structures like the mammalian craniomandibular region arise during development and how they are altered during evolution are two major unresolved questions in biology. Herein, we have described a model for the development and evolution of complex morphological structures. The model assumes that natural selection acts(More)
Biological sequences are composed of long strings of alphabetic letters rather than arrays of numerical values. Lack of a natural underlying metric for comparing such alphabetic data significantly inhibits sophisticated statistical analyses of sequences, modeling structural and functional aspects of proteins, and related problems. Herein, we use(More)
An information theoretic approach is used to examine the magnitude and origin of associations among amino acid sites in the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors. Entropy and mutual information values are used to summarize the variability and covariability of amino acids comprising the bHLH domain for 242 sequences. When these(More)
Ontogenetic variation in the causal components of phenotypic variability and covariability is described for body weight and tail length in mice derived from a full 7 x 7 diallel cross. Age-related changes in additive, dominance, sex-linked and maternal variance and covariance between 14 and 70 days of age are described. Age-specific variance components at(More)
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of proteins is a group of functionally diverse transcription factors found in both plants and animals. These proteins evolved early in eukaryotic cells before the split of animals and plants, but appear to function in 'plant-specific' or 'animal-specific' processes. In animals bHLH proteins are involved in regulation(More)
We analyzed patterns of mandibular genetic and phenotypic morphological integration and the relationship of genealogy to interstrain molecular and morphological differences in ten inbred strains of mice. Positions of mandibular landmarks in two-dimensional space were used to construct a finite element mesh for each individual, then all individuals from the(More)
A composite interval gene mapping procedure for complex binary disease traits is proposed in this paper. The binary trait of interest is assumed to be controlled by an underlying liability that is normally distributed. The liability is treated as a typical quantitative character and thus described by the usual quantitative genetics model. Translation from(More)