William R. Allen

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The findings of a retrospective survey of 1393 Thoroughbred mares visiting 22 studfarms in the Newmarket region of the UK during the 1998 mating season were compared with those of a similar study undertaken in 1983. The effects of mare age and status, stallion, month of mating, application of uterine treatments and other parameters on the rates of singleton(More)
The interacting influences of maternal size and fetal genotype on placental and fetal development in the mare were assessed by comparing conventional within-breed Thoroughbred (Tb-in-Tb, n = 7) and Pony (P-in-P, n = 7) control pregnancies established by artificial insemination (AI) with between-breed (Tb-in-P, n = 8; deprived in utero condition and P-in-Tb,(More)
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY Previous surveys of reproductive efficiency in British Thoroughbreds included only mares and stallions standing on studfarms in and around Newmarket. The present study was widened to compare Flatrace (FR) (Group A) and National Hunt (NH) (Group B) mares and stallions on studfarms throughout England. OBJECTIVES To assess the(More)
The African elephant reproduces so efficiently in the wild that overpopulation is now a serious problem in some game parks in Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa. The female reaches puberty between 10 and 12 years of age in the wild and, when in captivity, shows oestrous cycles of 14-15 weeks duration. She readily conceives a singleton in the wild yet her(More)
Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons express many nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits capable of forming multiple nAChR subtypes. These subtypes are expressed differentially along the neuron and presumably mediate diverse responses. beta3 subunit mRNA has restricted expression but is abundant in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental areas.(More)
Four separate components combine to produce the progesterone and biologically active 5 alpha-reduced pregnanes needed to maintain pregnancy in the mare. The primary corpus luteum (CL) is prolonged beyond its cyclical lifespan by the down-regulation of endometrial oxytocin receptors to prevent activation of the luteolytic pathway and its waning progesterone(More)
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY The low productivity associated with training and racing of young Thoroughbreds (TBs) in the UK due to athletic inability, injury and disease requires further study. OBJECTIVES To identify the time points and causes of losses during growth and training phases of a cohort of 1022 TB foals born in 1999 up to the end of their(More)
Ovarian follicular wave patterns were studied ultrasonographically in three groups of dromedary. Group 1 camels (n = 20) were teased daily with a vasectomized male but mating was prevented; group 2 camels (n = 8) ran freely with a vasectomized male camel for 10 h each day and group 3 camels (n = 8) were kept completely separate from any males. In a second(More)
Inner cell mass (ICM) cells were isolated immunosurgically from day 7-8 horse blastocysts and, after proliferation in vitro for 15-28 passages, three lines of cells were confirmed to be embryonic stem (ES) cells by their continued expression of alkaline phosphatase activity and their ability to bind antisera specific for the recognized stem cell markers,(More)
The equine embryo takes 6 days to traverse the oviduct and, when it finally enters the uterus, it remains spherical in shape and moves continually throughout the uterine lumen until day 17 after ovulation to deliver its maternal recognition of pregnancy signal to the entire endometrium. Between day 25 and day 35 after ovulation, the trophoblast cells of a(More)