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The authors propose that there are 2 different mechanisms whereby spatial cues capture attention. The voluntary mechanism is the strategic allocation of perceptual resources to the location most likely to contain the target. The involuntary mechanism is a reflexive orienting response that occurs even when the spatial cue does not indicate the probable(More)
Several recent theories of visual information processing have postulated that errors in recognition may result not only from a failure in feature extraction, but also from a failure to correctly join features after they have been correctly extracted. Errors that result from incorrectly integrating features are called conjunction errors. The present study(More)
Visual objects are perceived correctly only if their features are identified and then bound together. Illusory conjunctions result when feature identification is correct but an error occurs during feature binding. A new model is proposed that assumes feature binding errors occur because of uncertainty about the location of visual features. This model(More)
The effect of attention on the phenomenal appearance of objects was investigated in the domains of color (hue), location, line orientation, and spatial frequency. Observers indicated the appearance of a briefly presented above-threshold stimulus by selecting a matching stimulus along a sensory continuum (e.g., color). Attention was manipulated with a dual(More)
Illusory conjunctions are the incorrect combination of correctly perceived features, such as color and shape. They have been found to occur using a brief exposure (under 200 ms) and a dual task designed to divert attention. The present study investigated the roles of exposure duration and attention in obtaining illusory conjunctions. Several mathematical(More)
Take away the sensations of softness, moisture, redness, tartness, and you take away the cherry, since it is not a being distinct from sensations. A cherry, I say, is nothing but a congeries of sensible impressions. There are wholes, the behaviour of which is not determined by that of their individual elements, but where the part-processes are themselves(More)
We tested 3 mechanisms of involuntary attention: (1) a perceptual enhancement mechanism, (2) a response-decision mechanism, and (3) a serial-search mechanism. Experiment 1 used a response deadline technique to compare the perceptual enhancement and the decision mechanisms and found evidence consistent with the decision mechanism. Experiment 2 used a(More)
Two questions are investigated in this work: first, whether the integration of color and shape information is affected by attending to the stimulus location, and second, whether attending to a stimulus location enhances the perceptual representation of the stimulus or merely affects decision processes. In three experiments, subjects were briefly presented(More)
The effect of attention on perceived brightness and contrast was investigated in eight experiments. Attention was manipulated by engaging observers in an attention-demanding concurrent task (letter detection) or by directing attention to a location with a peripheral cue. In all of the dual-task manipulations, attention reduced the variability of responses.(More)
Five experiments investigated the influence of cognitive and linguistic factors on the integration of color and letter-shape information. Subjects were briefly presented strings of colored letters that varied in pronounceability and familiarity. Detection and search tasks required subjects to identify the color of predesignated target letters. It was(More)