William Prinzmetal

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The authors propose that there are 2 different mechanisms whereby spatial cues capture attention. The voluntary mechanism is the strategic allocation of perceptual resources to the location most likely to contain the target. The involuntary mechanism is a reflexive orienting response that occurs even when the spatial cue does not indicate the probable(More)
Several recent theories of visual information processing have postulated that errors in recognition may result not only from a failure in feature extraction, but also from a failure to correctly join features after they have been correctly extracted. Errors that result from incorrectly integrating features are called conjunction errors. The present study(More)
Visual objects are perceived correctly only if their features are identified and then bound together. Illusory conjunctions result when feature identification is correct but an error occurs during feature binding. A new model is proposed that assumes feature binding errors occur because of uncertainty about the location of visual features. This model(More)
The effect of attention on perceived brightness and contrast was investigated in eight experiments. Attention was manipulated by engaging observers in an attention-demanding concurrent task (letter detection) or by directing attention to a location with a peripheral cue. In all of the dual-task manipulations, attention reduced the variability of responses.(More)
Illusory conjunctions are the incorrect combination of correctly perceived features, such as color and shape. They have been found to occur using a brief exposure (under 200 ms) and a dual task designed to divert attention. The present study investigated the roles of exposure duration and attention in obtaining illusory conjunctions. Several mathematical(More)
In many dual-task experiments, the priority observers give to each task is experimentally varied. Most experiments using this methodology have studied the effect of dividing attention between spatially distinct objects. We examined performance when attention had to be divided between stimulus attributes other than spatial location. In the first experiment,(More)
Two questions are investigated in this work: first, whether the integration of color and shape information is affected by attending to the stimulus location, and second, whether attending to a stimulus location enhances the perceptual representation of the stimulus or merely affects decision processes. In three experiments, subjects were briefly presented(More)
We present an application, using ExcelTM, that can solve best-fitting parameters for multinomial models. Multinomial modeling has become increasingly popular and can be used in a variety of domains, such as memory, perception, and other domains in which processes are assumed to be dissociable. We offer an application that can be used for a variety of(More)
Illusory conjunctions are the incorrect perceptual combination of briefly presented colors and shapes. In the neon colors illusion, achromatic figures take on the color of an overlaid grid of colored lines. Both illusions are explained by a theory that assumes (a) poor location information or poor spatial resolution for some aspects of visual information(More)
Carrasco, Ling, and Read (2004) reported that involuntary attention increased perceived contrast. We replicated Carrasco et al. and then tested an alternative hypothesis: With stimuli near threshold, a peripheral cue biased observers to believe a stimulus had been presented in the cued location. Consistent with this hypothesis, the effect disappeared when(More)