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Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) can record a large amount of accurate topographical information with a high spatial accuracy over a relatively short period of time. These features suggest it is a useful tool for topographical survey and surface deformation detection. However, the use of TLS to survey a terrain surface is still challenging in the presence(More)
National infrastructure systems (energy, transport, digital communications, water, and waste) provide essential services to society. Although for the most part these systems developed in a piecemeal way, they are now an integrated and highly interdependent " system of systems. " However, understanding the long-term performance trajectory of national(More)
Over its life cycle, railway ballast undergoes changes to its fabric structure due to train loading and maintenance (e.g. tamping). Understanding these changes and linking them quantitatively to the loading regime has the potential to inform improved designs for new track and more cost-effective maintenance of the existing network. However, a method for(More)
10 This paper describes model tests carried out to investigate the contribution to the resistance to 11 the lateral movement of a railway sleeper attributable to the ballast shoulder, for a range of 12 shoulder widths and heights. During the tests, the deflection and resistance were measured 13 and photographs taken. Photographs were analyzed using a(More)
Seasonal shrinkage and swelling of clay fill railway embankments can disturb the track geometry, resulting in train speed restrictions that disrupt normal operations. Such movements are exacerbated by vegetation, but reliable analytical descriptions of the effects of trees on embankment behaviour are not yet established. This paper presents and analyses the(More)
The development of reliable methods for measuring deflections as trains pass has enabled valuable insights into railway track behaviour to be gained. This is especially useful for problem areas such as transitions from normal ground onto hard substructures and complex track geometries such as switches and crossings. To date, much of the research on(More)
1 Soil thermal conductivity is an important parameter in the design of ground source heat pump and energy foundation systems. One laboratory method for measuring the soil thermal conductivity is the needle probe method. Previously, analysis of the needle probe test data has been simplistic, relying heavily on human judgment and rules of thumb. This paper(More)