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Chlorogenic acid, a compound which occurs naturally in many food items, was assayed for genotoxic activity in 3 different test systems: reverse mutations in the preincubation test with Salmonella typhimurium, gene conversion with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D7, and chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Chlorogenic acid was(More)
This paper discusses the mechanisms involved in the compression of domestic waste, and how the resulting compression behaviour may be modelled. Reference is made to experimental data illustrating the effect of gas content and pore water pressure on bulk density and drainable porosity, and a theoretical model able to reproduce some but not all features of(More)
Simple phenols (catechol, 4-methyl catechol, resorcinol, phloroglucinol and pyrogallol), phenolic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, syringic acid and salicylic acid), a phenylacetic acid (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) and eugenol were assayed for clastogenic activity in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with(More)
Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed for 3 h to furan and 6 furan derivatives (furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-methyl furfural, 2-methyl furan, 2,5-dimethyl furan and 2-furyl methyl ketone). Each of the 6 furan derivatives induced a relatively high frequency of chromatid breaks and chromatid exchanges in the absence of a liver microsomal(More)
Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed for 3 h to caramelized solutions of the sugars sucrose, glucose, mannose, arabinose, maltose and fructose. Each of these caramelized sugars induced a relatively high frequency of chromosome breaks and exchanges in the treated cells. The non-caramelized sugars did not increase the frequency of(More)
Chloroform extracts of fecal material from 4 subjects on normal mixed western diets were fractionated to obtain an acid fraction and a hexane extract containing neutrals and bases. The acid fraction from at least 2 of the donors induced an elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations and exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Since acid steroids(More)
The effect of degradation and settlement on transport properties of mechanically and biologically treated (MBT) waste was examined by applying three different tracers to two waste columns (~0.5 m diameter) in a series of closed-loop experiments. One column was allowed to biodegrade and the other was bio-suppressed. Permeability and drainable porosity were(More)
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) can record a large amount of accurate topographical information with a high spatial accuracy over a relatively short period of time. These features suggest it is a useful tool for topographical survey and surface deformation detection. However, the use of TLS to survey a terrain surface is still challenging in the presence(More)