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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is among the most lethal human cancers in part because it is insensitive to many chemotherapeutic drugs. Studying a mouse model of PDA that is refractory to the clinically used drug gemcitabine, we found that the tumors in this model were poorly perfused and poorly vascularized, properties that are shared with human(More)
Recognition of modified histone species by distinct structural domains within 'reader' proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Readers that simultaneously recognize histones with multiple marks allow transduction of complex chromatin modification patterns into specific biological outcomes. Here we report that chromatin regulator(More)
Despite progress in leukemia therapy, most children who experience relapse have a dismal prognosis. New, effective approaches are needed. We conducted a phase 1 study of a novel nucleoside analog, clofarabine, in pediatric patients with refractory and relapsed leukemia. Clofarabine was infused intravenously over 1 hour each day for 5 days. Six dose levels,(More)
Cancer cells exhibit increased glycolysis for ATP production due, in part, to respiration injury (the Warburg effect). Because ATP generation through glycolysis is less efficient than through mitochondrial respiration, how cancer cells with this metabolic disadvantage can survive the competition with other cells and eventually develop drug resistance is a(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of our study was to investigate the pharmacology of clofarabine and its triphosphate and the pharmacodynamic actions in circulating blasts obtained from acute leukemia patients who entered a Phase I clinical trial of clofarabine. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Adults with refractory acute leukemias including lymphoblastic (ALL), myelogenous (AML)(More)
PURPOSE Based on its mechanistic similarity to fludarabine and cladribine and the success of these analogues for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we hypothesized that clofarabine would be effective for indolent leukemias. The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy and cellular pharmacology during clinical trials of(More)
Superoxide dismutases (SOD) are essential enzymes that eliminate superoxide radical (O2-) and thus protect cells from damage induced by free radicals. The active O2- production and low SOD activity in cancer cells may render the malignant cells highly dependent on SOD for survival and sensitive to inhibition of SOD. Here we report that certain oestrogen(More)
Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) provide important survival and drug resistance signals to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, but current models to analyze CLL-MSC interactions are heterogeneous. Therefore, we tested different human and murine MSC lines and primary human MSCs for their ability to protect CLL cells from spontaneous and drug-induced(More)
2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), a new anticancer agent currently in clinical trials, has been demonstrated to inhibit superoxide dismutase (SOD) and to induce apoptosis in leukemia cells through a free radical-mediated mechanism. Because the accumulation of superoxide (O(2)-) by inhibition of SOD depends on the cellular generation of O(2)-, we hypothesized that(More)
Although TP53 mutations are rare in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Mdm2 overexpression has been reported as an alternative cause of p53 dysfunction. We investigated the potential therapeutic use of nongenotoxic p53 activation by a small-molecule antagonist of Mdm2, Nutlin-3a, in CLL. Nutlin-3a induced significant apoptosis in 30 (91%) of 33(More)