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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is among the most lethal human cancers in part because it is insensitive to many chemotherapeutic drugs. Studying a mouse model of PDA that is refractory to the clinically used drug gemcitabine, we found that the tumors in this model were poorly perfused and poorly vascularized, properties that are shared with human(More)
PURPOSE To conduct a randomized phase II trial of dose-intense gemcitabine using a standard 30-minute infusion or the fixed dose rate (FDR) infusion (10 mg/m2/min) in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS In this prospective trial, patients with locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated with 2,200 mg/m2(More)
Recognition of modified histone species by distinct structural domains within 'reader' proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Readers that simultaneously recognize histones with multiple marks allow transduction of complex chromatin modification patterns into specific biological outcomes. Here we report that chromatin regulator(More)
Despite progress in leukemia therapy, most children who experience relapse have a dismal prognosis. New, effective approaches are needed. We conducted a phase 1 study of a novel nucleoside analog, clofarabine, in pediatric patients with refractory and relapsed leukemia. Clofarabine was infused intravenously over 1 hour each day for 5 days. Six dose levels,(More)
The action of the new deoxycytidine analogue 2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine (dFdC) on DNA synthesis was investigated in whole cells and in vitro assay systems with purified DNA polymerases. DNA synthesis in human lymphoblastoid CEM cells was inhibited by dFdC in a concentration-dependent manner that could not be reversed by exogenous deoxynucleosides. The(More)
The purpose of this study was to define, in a phase I study in leukemia, the maximally tolerated dose (MTD), major toxicities, and possible antitumor activity of Topotecan, a new topoisomerase I (topo I) inhibitor. Topotecan was delivered by a 5-day continuous infusion every 3 to 4 weeks to patients with refractory or relapsed acute leukemia, at doses(More)
Cancer cells are under intrinsic increased oxidative stress and vulnerable to free radical-induced apoptosis. Here, we report a strategy to hinder mitochondrial electron transport and increase superoxide O2. radical generation in human leukemia cells as a novel mechanism to enhance apoptosis induced by anticancer agents. This strategy was first tested in a(More)
In a phase 2 study, 62 patients with relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 31), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 8), chronic myeloid leukemia in blastic phase (CMLBP; n = 11), and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL; n = 12) received 40 mg/m2 clofarabine intravenously over 1 hour daily for 5 days, every 3 to 6 weeks. Twenty patients (32%)(More)
The new deoxycytidine analogue 2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine (dFdC) is a specific inhibitor of DNA synthesis that has marked cytotoxicity and therapeutic activity. A 2-hr incubation with 0.1-10 microM dFdC decreased cellular viability 78-97%. This treatment reduced deoxynucleoside triphosphate pools, similar to the action of the ribonucleotide reductase(More)
2',2'-Difluorodeoxycytidine (dFdC) is a new deoxycytidine analogue with good activity against human leukemic cell lines and murine solid tumors, while the activity of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) is established in experimental systems and for the treatment of human adult leukemia. This study compared the cellular metabolism and cytotoxic(More)