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Mutations in the gene encoding the homeobox transcription factor NKX2-5 were found to cause nonsyndromic, human congenital heart disease. A dominant disease locus associated with cardiac malformations and atrioventricular conduction abnormalities was mapped to chromosome 5q35, where NKX2-5, a Drosophila tinman homolog, is located. Three different NKX2-5(More)
Under aerobic conditions, glucose is primarily catabolized by vascular smooth muscle to lactate, in spite of an adequate oxidative capacity. Although this is often considered to be indicative of some nonspecific metabolic insufficiency, there is evidence that aerobic glycolysis is specifically coupled to sodium and potassium transport processes, whereas(More)
BACKGROUND Heart-hand syndromes compose a class of combined congenital cardiac and limb deformities. The proto-typical heart-hand disorder is Holt-Oram syndrome, which is characterized by cardiac septation defects and radial ray limb deformity. We have recently mapped the Holt-Oram syndrome gene defect to the long arm of human chromosome 12 in two families.(More)
Inflammation contributes to the development of fibrotic and malignant diseases. We assessed the ability of inflammatory cytokines to modulate endothelial cell survival and functions related to tissue repair/remodeling. Treatment with interleukin (IL)-1β or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (2 ng/mL) led to human pulmonary artery endothelial cells becoming(More)
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