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Contrary to widespread assumption, dynamic RAM (DRAM), the main memory in most modern computers, retains its contents for several seconds after power is lost, even at room temperature and even if removed from a motherboard. Although DRAM becomes less reliable when it is not refreshed, it is not immediately erased, and its contents persist sufficiently for(More)
Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and B cell stimulatory factor-1 (BSF-1), also known as interleukin-4, are T cell-derived lymphokines that have potent effects on B cell proliferation and differentiation. They are often secreted by distinct T cell clones. It is now shown that IFN-gamma stimulates the expression of immunoglobulin (Ig) of the IgG2a isotype and(More)
CD4+ T cells are critical for host defense but are also major drivers of immune-mediated disease. These T cells specialize to become distinct subsets and produce restricted patterns of cytokines, which are tailored to combat various microbial pathogens. Although classically viewed as distinct lineages, recent work calls into question whether helper CD4+ T(More)
To study the factors that determine whether CD4+ T cells produce interleukin 4 (IL-4) or interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) upon stimulation we used a system allowing naive T cells to be primed in vitro by specific antigen. Dense CD4+ T cells were purified from mice that expressed transgenes encoding a T cell receptor specific for pigeon cytochrome C peptide(More)
The autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES, 'Job's syndrome') is characterized by recurrent and often severe pulmonary infections, pneumatoceles, eczema, staphylococcal abscesses, mucocutaneous candidiasis, and abnormalities of bone and connective tissue. Mutations presumed to underlie HIES have recently been identified in stat3, the gene encoding(More)
Mice that bear the X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) mutation have a B lymphocyte-specific defect resulting in an inability to make antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens. A backcross of 1114 progeny revealed the colocalization of xid with Bruton's agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (btk) gene, which is implicated in the human immune deficiency,(More)
B-cell stimulatory factor-1 (BSF-1), formerly designated B-cell growth factor, is a T-cell-derived factor required for entry into the S phase of the cell cycle by B cells stimulated with low concentrations of anti-IgM antibodies. BSF-1 acts directly on resting B cells to prepare them to synthesize DNA more promptly on subsequent exposure to competent(More)
B-cell stimulatory factor-1 (BSF-1) is a T-cell product of relative molecular mass 20,000 (Mr, 20K) initially described as a cofactor required for DNA synthesis by resting mouse B cells stimulated with low concentrations of anti-IgM antibodies. It acts on resting B cells to enhance the expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules,(More)
Non-B, non-T cells from spleen and bone marrow of naive mice produce IL-4 upon stimulation by plate-bound IgE or IgG2a in the presence of IL-3. Infection of mice with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) or injection of anti-IgD antibodies, treatments known to cause striking polyclonal IgE responses, increase the number of splenic non-B, non-T cells and cause(More)
Interleukin (IL)-18 synergizes with IL-12 to promote T helper cell (Th)1 responses. Somewhat paradoxically, IL-18 administration alone strongly induces immunoglobulin (Ig)E production and allergic inflammation, indicating a role for IL-18 in the generation of Th2 responses. The ability of IL-18 to induce IgE is dependent on CD4+ T cells, IL-4, and signal(More)