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Many research groups have been carrying out studies to develop biomarkers of exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and apply these for human biomonitoring. The main objectives of the use of biomarkers are to determine specific occupational and environmental exposures to monitor the effectiveness of exposure controls and prediction of the risk of(More)
We review the history of the toxicology of benzene and consider current exposure levels, the metabolism of benzene, reactions of the metabolites with biomolecules and possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis due to benzene. Epidemiological evidence indicates a relationship between exposure to benzene and the occurrence of acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia in(More)
1,3-Butadiene (butadiene) is a potent carcinogen in mice, but not in rats. Metabolic studies may provide an explanation of these species differences and their relevance to humans. Male Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed for 6 h to 200 ppm [2,3-14C]-butadiene (specific radioactivity [sa] 20 mCi/mmol) in a Cannon nose-only system. Radioactivity(More)
Chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, 1) is an important industrial chemical, which is carcinogenic in experimental animals and possibly in humans. It is metabolized to the monoepoxides, 2-chloro-2-ethenyloxirane (2a,b) and (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane (3a,b), together with electrophilic chlorinated aldehydes and ketones. This study has investigated the(More)
Differences in the metabolism of 1,3-butadiene (Bd) in rats and mice may account for the observed species difference in carcinogenicity. Previous studies of the metabolic fate of Bd have identified epoxide formation as a key metabolic transformation which gives 1, 2-epoxy-3-butene (BMO), although some evidence of aldehyde metabolites is reported. In this(More)
1,3-Butadiene (BD) is carcinogenic in mice and rats, with mice being considerably more sensitive than rats. Urine metabolites are 1, 2-dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (DHBMA) and a mixture of monohydroxy-3-butenyl mercapturic acids (MHBMA). The reactive metabolite 1,2-epoxy-3-butene forms 1- and 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl valine adducts in hemoglobin (MHBVal). The(More)
Effects of nicotine, administered by continuous infusion via osmotic minipumps, were studied on the operant self-administration of alcohol by rats, using a variable interval (15 s) schedule, and measuring the acquisition, maintenance, extinction and reinstatement of responding for alcohol. Doses of nicotine of 0.25, 1.25 and 7.5 mg/kg/24 h had no(More)
Computer-based assessment of potential toxicity has become increasingly popular in recent years. The knowledge-base system DEREK is developed under the guidance of a multinational Collaborative Group of expert toxicologists and provides a qualitative approach to toxicity prediction. Major developments of the DEREK program and knowledge-base have taken place(More)
The in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects of [2-amino-4-(2,4,6-trimethylbenzylamino)-phenyl]-carbamic acid ethyl ester (AA29504), which is a close analogue of retigabine, have been investigated. AA29504 induced a rightward shift of the activation threshold at cloned KCNQ2, 2/3 and 4 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, with a potency 3-4fold lower(More)
Chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, 1) is oxidised by cytochrome P450 enzymes in mammalian liver microsomes to several metabolites, some of which are reactive towards DNA and are mutagenic. Much less of the metabolite (1-chloroethenyl)oxirane (2a/2b) was formed by human liver microsomes compared with microsomes from Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1 mice.(More)