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Effects of nicotine, administered by continuous infusion via osmotic minipumps, were studied on the operant self-administration of alcohol by rats, using a variable interval (15 s) schedule, and measuring the acquisition, maintenance, extinction and reinstatement of responding for alcohol. Doses of nicotine of 0.25, 1.25 and 7.5 mg/kg/24 h had no(More)
Computer-based assessment of potential toxicity has become increasingly popular in recent years. The knowledge-base system DEREK is developed under the guidance of a multinational Collaborative Group of expert toxicologists and provides a qualitative approach to toxicity prediction. Major developments of the DEREK program and knowledge-base have taken place(More)
The in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects of [2-amino-4-(2,4,6-trimethylbenzylamino)-phenyl]-carbamic acid ethyl ester (AA29504), which is a close analogue of retigabine, have been investigated. AA29504 induced a rightward shift of the activation threshold at cloned KCNQ2, 2/3 and 4 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, with a potency 3-4fold lower(More)
Many research groups have been carrying out studies to develop biomarkers of exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and apply these for human biomonitoring. The main objectives of the use of biomarkers are to determine specific occupational and environmental exposures to monitor the effectiveness of exposure controls and prediction of the risk of(More)
The American Diabetes Association have recommended that the fasting plasma glucose level for the diagnosis of diabetes is lowered and that this becomes the main diagnostic test. We have used population-based data from three ethnic groups in Newcastle upon Tyne to examine the implications of this change. Data were available on 824 European (25-74 years), 375(More)
AIMS To assess whether four proxy measures of abdominal obesity (waist circumference; waist-to-hip ratio (WHR); waist-to-height ratio and C index, a measure of body shape) were uniformly associated with features of the metabolic syndrome (triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 2-h glucose) in three ethnic groups. METHODS Anthropometric(More)
The effects of the CCKB antagonists, CAM1028 and CI988 and a CCKA antagonist, CAM1481, were studied on the anxiety-related behaviour produced by withdrawal from chronic ethanol treatment, using the elevated plus maze. Cessation of chronic ethanol administration produced a profile, in both mice and rats, consistent with increase in anxiety-related behaviour.(More)
The effects of age, ethanol concentration and minor stress on the variation in alcohol preference of C57 strain mice were determined. In two bottle choice tests, an older population of mice contained slightly more low-preference mice than a younger population. A wide range of ethanol preference was consistently seen in young mice for 8% and 6% ethanol, but(More)
Human and mouse skin explant systems have been developed as models that qualitatively mimic the genotoxic metabolism in vivo of benzo[a]pyrene, a representative carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. High-performance liquid chromatography profiles of DNA adducts isolated from CD-1 mouse skin treated with [(3)H]benzo[a]pyrene either in vivo or in(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Grafts of MHP36 cells have previously been shown to reduce dysfunction after global ischemia in rats. To test their efficacy after focal ischemia, MHP36 cells were grafted 2 to 3 weeks after transient intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats. METHODS MHP36 cells were implanted into the hemisphere contralateral(More)