William P Wallace

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Three experiments are reported introducing variations in testing mode and cuing context into the general procedures used to demonstrate recognition failure of recallable words. Recognition failure of recognizable words can be demonstrated when a cued recognition test replaces the cued recall test in these general procedures. Also, recall failure of(More)
Lexical activation is a core process in models of spoken word recognition. Specific words activated are candidates, with degree of activation determined by the match with sensory information. Once identified, lexical activation shifts to provide a meaningful representation, normally through activation of semantically related words. Activated words are(More)
Cohort theory in spoken-word recognition assumes that a cohort of word candidates consistent with incoming sensory information is activated implicitly as a spoken sound stimulus unfolds over time. Five experiments examined implications of this internal-generation-of-words mechanism. In Experiments 1 and 2, a "base" word was disqualified (the sensory(More)
Three recognition memory experiments examined phonemic similarity and false recognition under conditions of divided attention. The manipulation was presumed to have little effect on automatic, perceptual influences of memory. Prior research demonstrated that false recognition of a test word (e.g., discrepancy) was higher if the study list included a nonword(More)
Recognition memory for spoken words is influenced by phonetic resemblance between test words and items presented during study. Presentation of derived nonwords (e.g., /d/ransparent or transparen/d/) on a study list produces a higher than normal false recognition rate to base words (e.g., transparent). Test words that share beginning phonemes with studied(More)
Two experiments were performed that involved an initial word-identification task in which the acoustic signal was degraded by either 50% or 60% compression of the recorded words. A control group was tested at the original recording rate (0% compression). The compression manipulation was successful in increasing the number of identification errors. During(More)
Two experiments examined false recall for lists of semantically and phonologically associated words as a function of presentation duration. Veridical recall increased with long exposure durations for all lists. For semantically associated lists, false recall increased from 20-250 ms, then decreased. There was a high level of false recall with 20 ms(More)
Two experiments examined intelligibility of sentences reproduced with increased tonal frequency (the spectrum of the speech signal shifted upward), increased speech rate, or both frequency and speech rate increased. The first experiment showed that both the frequency and speech rate increases independently impaired sentence intelligibility. Sentences played(More)