William P. Norman

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Our purpose was to determine the central vagal sites for regulating changes in lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure in the cat. Injection of the retrograde tracer, horseradish peroxidase, into the LES resulted in labeling of cells in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), with the largest number of cells appearing in two areas, one area rostral(More)
The purpose of our study was to determine whether clonidine exerts its centrally mediated hypotensive action at three sites that influence arterial pressure located in the medulla, specifically associated with the intermediate area of the ventrolateral medulla. The "intermediate area" lies approximately 1.5 mm caudal to the border of the trapezoid body(More)
The purpose of this study was to identify the projections from the brain to the phrenic motor nucleus in the cat by employing a retrogradely-transported fluorescent dye. Propidium iodide was iontophoresed into the phrenic motor nucleus which is located in the fourth, fifth and sixth segments of the cervical spinal cord. Retrogradely-labeled cell bodies were(More)
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether blockade of excitatory amino acid receptors at the ventrolateral nucleus of the tractus solitarius would influence respiratory activity. This was done by microinjecting excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists into the ventrolateral nucleus of the tractus solitarius of alpha-chloralose-anesthetized(More)
In this study, the distribution of neurons containing the adrenaline-synthesizing enzyme phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT) was mapped in the medulla of the cat. Data from recent studies in the rat suggest that the anatomical structure responsible for cardiorespiratory changes that occur following application of neurotransmitters and drugs to(More)
Retrograde tracing with a fluorescent dye (Fast Blue) combined with immunohistochemistry was used to identify putative neurotransmitter(s) at the phrenic motor nucleus in the cat. Fast Blue was injected bilaterally into the diaphragm of five cats, where each phrenic nerve enters the muscle. Seven days later the animals were perfusion fixed and tissue(More)
The purpose of our study was to determine the localization of sites within the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) of the cat that when stimulated would increase gastric motility. To do this, two types of experiments were performed. First, the retrograde tracer fast blue was injected into the antrum and pylorus, and labeled neurons in the DMV were(More)
We previously demonstrated that GABA and muscimol administered either into the cisterna magna or the fourth ventricle to chloralose-anesthetized cats cause respiratory depression, hypotension, and bradycardia. Injection of these substances into the lateral and third ventricles had no effect. In order to localize the site of action, muscimol and GABA were(More)
Blockade of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor function by direct microinjection of bicuculline into the nucleus ambiguous in cats produced a marked increase in gastric motility which was mediated by the vagus nerve. This effect was reversed by muscimol. These data indicate that the nucleus ambiguous may be an important brain site influencing gastric function(More)