William P. Norman

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Our purpose was to determine the central vagal sites for regulating changes in lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure in the cat. Injection of the retrograde tracer, horseradish peroxidase, into the LES resulted in labeling of cells in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), with the largest number of cells appearing in two areas, one area rostral(More)
We previously demonstrated that GABA and muscimol administered either into the cisterna magna or the fourth ventricle to chloralose-anesthetized cats cause respiratory depression, hypotension, and bradycardia. Injection of these substances into the lateral and third ventricles had no effect. In order to localize the site of action, muscimol and GABA were(More)
The purpose of our study was to determine the site of origin of vagal neurons that innervate specific parts of the stomach (the fundus, corpus, and antrum/pylorus). This was done by injecting the retrograde fluorescent tracer Fast Blue into these parts of the cat stomach and examining the hindbrain for cells labeled with retrograde tracer. We found that(More)
Blockade of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor function by direct microinjection of bicuculline into the nucleus ambiguous in cats produced a marked increase in gastric motility which was mediated by the vagus nerve. This effect was reversed by muscimol. These data indicate that the nucleus ambiguous may be an important brain site influencing gastric function(More)
The purpose of our study was to determine the localization of sites within the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) of the cat that when stimulated would increase gastric motility. To do this, two types of experiments were performed. First, the retrograde tracer fast blue was injected into the antrum and pylorus, and labeled neurons in the DMV were(More)
To identify hindbrain sites that influence gastric motility, we administered multiple injections of horseradish peroxidase into the anterior surface of the antrum near the lesser curvature in 3 cats, and used light microscopy to identify horseradish peroxidase-positive neurons in the hindbrain. Retrogradely labeled neurons were found evenly distributed on(More)
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is clearly implicated in the control of gastric function via interactions in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) of the cat. The source of the TRH innervation of the DMV is important to determine because this region could be of importance in control of gastric function. TRH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons are located(More)
The purpose of our study was to identify the central nervous system site(s) of action of capsaicin responsible for producing changes in cardiovascular function. To do this, capsaicin was administered into several cerebroventricular regions of chloralose-anesthetized cats while monitoring arterial blood pressure and heart rate. Administration of capsaicin(More)
In this study, the distribution of neurons containing the adrenaline-synthesizing enzyme phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT) was mapped in the medulla of the cat. Data from recent studies in the rat suggest that the anatomical structure responsible for cardiorespiratory changes that occur following application of neurotransmitters and drugs to(More)