William P. Kemp

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The evolution of eusociality is one of the major transitions in evolution, but the underlying genomic changes are unknown. We compared the genomes of 10 bee species that vary in social complexity, representing multiple independent transitions in social evolution, and report three major findings. First, many important genes show evidence of neutral evolution(More)
We propose a class of complex population dynamic models that combines new time-varying parameters and second-order time lags for describing univariate ecological time series data. The Kalman filter and likelihood function were used to estimate parameters of all models in the class for 31 data sets, and Schwarz's information criterion (SIC) was used to(More)
Osmia (Osmia) bees are strictly univoltine and winter as diapausing adults. In these species, the timing of adult eclosion with the onset of wintering conditions is critical, because adults exposed to long pre-wintering periods show increased lipid loss and winter mortality. Populations from warm areas fly in February-March and are exposed to longer growth(More)
We construct a mathematical model to quantify the loss of resilience in collapsing honey bee colonies due to the presence of a strong Allee effect. In the model, recruitment and mortality of adult bees have substantial social components, with recruitment enhanced and mortality reduced by additional adult bee numbers. The result is an Allee effect, a net(More)
Metamorphosis is an important developmental stage for holometabolous insects, during which adult morphology and physiology are established. Proper development relies on optimal body temperatures, and natural ambient temperature (Ta) fluctuations, especially in spring or in northern latitudes, could result in interruptions to development. It is unclear how(More)
In-nest observations of the solitary bee, Megachile rotundata (F.), revealed that nesting females apply olfactory cues to nests for nest recognition. On their way in and out of the nest, females drag the abdomen along the entire length of the nest, and sometimes deposit fluid droplets from the tip of the abdomen. The removal of bee-marked sections of the(More)
We addressed the importance of third dimension and color contrast as cues used in close range nest localization by Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) females. By manipulating the surface of the nesting site, we compared 3-dimensional configurations of three different depths (1 cm, 2 cm, and 6 cm) and three different color contrasts(More)
Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). M. rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the physical nature of the nest, M. rotundata brood may have(More)
Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is the primary pollinator of alfalfa in the northwestern United States and western Canada and provides pollination services for onion, carrot, hybrid canola, various legumes, and other specialty crops. M. rotundata females are gregarious, nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial(More)
ABSTRACT In alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., seed production where high bee densities are released, alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), females may enter several nesting holes before locating their nests. Such levels of "wrong hole" visits lead to an increase in the time spent by females locating their own nests,(More)