William P. Halford

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BACKGROUND The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICP0 protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which is encoded within the HSV-1 latency-associated locus. When ICP0 is not synthesized, the HSV-1 genome is acutely susceptible to cellular repression. Reciprocally, when ICP0 is synthesized, viral replication is efficiently initiated from virions or latent HSV-1(More)
Glycoprotein D (gD-2) is the entry receptor of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and is the immunogen in the pharmaceutical industry's lead HSV-2 vaccine candidate. Efforts to prevent genital herpes using gD-2 subunit vaccines have been ongoing for 20 years at a cost in excess of $100 million. To date, gD-2 vaccines have yielded equivocal protection in(More)
Infected-cell protein 0 (ICP0) is a RING finger E3 ligase that regulates herpes simplex virus (HSV) mRNA synthesis, and strongly influences the balance between latency and replication of HSV. For 25 years, the nuclear functions of ICP0 have been the subject of intense scrutiny. To obtain new clues about ICP0's mechanism of action, we constructed HSV-1(More)
The capacity of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to replicate in vitro decreases tremendously when animal cell cultures are exposed to ligands of both the alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) receptor and IFN-gamma receptor prior to inoculation with low m.o.i.s of HSV-1. However, the available evidence provides no insight into the possible mechanisms(More)
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0(-) mutants are interferon-sensitive, avirulent, and elicit protective immunity against HSV-1 (Virol J, 2006, 3:44). If an ICP0(-) mutant of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) exhibited similar properties, such a virus might be used to vaccinate against genital herpes. The current study was initiated to explore this(More)
BACKGROUND Interferon-gamma acts to multiply the potency with which innate interferons (alpha/beta) suppress herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication. Recent evidence suggests that this interaction is functionally relevant in host defense against HSV-1. However, it is not clear which WBCs of the innate immune system, if any, limit HSV-1 spread in an(More)
We lack a correlate of immunity to herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) that may be used to differentiate whether a HSV-2 vaccine elicits robust or anemic protection against genital herpes. This gap in knowledge is often attributed to a failure to measure the correct component of the adaptive immune response to HSV-2. However, efforts to identify a correlate of(More)
BACKGROUND Some species, including humans and rabbits, exhibit periodic viral reactivation and shed infectious virus at the infected end organ. Mice may be an exception, because spontaneous shedding of infectious virus rarely, if ever, occurs. However, spontaneous molecular reactivation, i.e., the expression of a few viral genes and the synthesis of the(More)
Cre-responsive dual-fluorescent alleles allow in situ marking of cell lineages or genetically modified cells. Here we report a dual-fluorescent allele, ROSA nT-nG , which directs nuclear accumulation of tdTomato in Cre-naïve lineages. Cre converts the allele to ROSA nG , which drives nuclear EGFP accumulation. Conditions were established for analyzing(More)
ICP0 is a regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication-latency balance of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Absence of ICP0 renders HSV prone to establish quiescent infections, and thus cellular repressor(s) are believed to silence HSV mRNA synthesis when ICP0 fails to accumulate. To date, an ICP0-antagonized repressor has not been identified(More)