William P. Gray

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The element selenium (Se) was recognized only 40 years ago as being essential in the nutrition of animals and humans. It is recognized as being an essential component of a number of enzymes, in which it is present as the amino acid selenocysteine. Se compounds have also been found to inhibit tumorigenesis in a variety of animal models, and recent studies(More)
Adult dentate neurogenesis is important for certain types of hippocampal-dependent learning and also appears to be important for the maintenance of normal mood and the behavioural effects of antidepressants. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a peptide neurotransmitter released by interneurons in the dentate gyrus, has important effects on mood, anxiety-related(More)
New neurones are produced in the adult hippocampus throughout life and are necessary for certain types of hippocampal learning. Little, however, is known about the control of hippocampal neurogenesis. We used primary hippocampal cultures from early post-natal rats and neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor knockout mice as well as selective neuropeptide Y receptor(More)
Seizure induction in laboratory animals is followed by many changes in structure and function, and one of these is an increase in neurogenesis-the birth of new neurons. This phenomenon may be relevant to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), because one of the regions of the brain where seizure-induced neurogenesis is most robust is the dentate gyrus-an area of the(More)
Understanding how neural activity is functionally linked to the stem cell niche, is assuming ever increasing importance as hippocampal neurogenesis is shown to be important for modulating the behavioural responses to stress and for certain forms of learning and memory. Neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal peptide have emerged as(More)
We have shown that neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulates neurogenesis in the normal dentate gyrus (DG) via Y(1) receptors (Howell, O.W., Scharfman, H.E., Herzog, H., Sundstrom, L.E., Beck-Sickinger, A. and Gray, W.P. (2003) Neuropeptide Y is neuroproliferative for post-natal hippocampal precursor cells. J Neurochem, 86, 646-659; Howell, O.W., Doyle, K., Goodman,(More)
Environmental perturbations during early mammalian development can affect aspects of offspring growth and cardiovascular health. We have demonstrated previously that maternal gestational dietary protein restriction in mice significantly elevated adult offspring systolic blood pressure. Therefore, the present study investigates the key mechanisms of blood(More)
Patients who had undergone a unilateral trans-sylvian selective amygdalohippocampectomy as treatment for chronic intractable epilepsy were tested in a virtual Morris Water Maze (MWM) task where they were required to locate a hidden platform as a measure of spatial learning. These individuals' performance on spatial tasks was compared to age-matched healthy(More)
Granule cell progenitors in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation have the unusual capacity to be able to divide in the brains of adult rats and primates. The basal proliferation rate of granule cell progenitors in the adult rat is low compared with development, however, it is possible that this rate may become significantly altered under(More)
Kainate-induced seizures increase hippocampal neurogenesis. Glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes with radial processes in the dentate gyrus share many of the characteristics of radial glia and appear to act as precursor cells for adult dentate neurogenesis. Using the chemoconvulsant kainate and transgenic mice with human glial-fibrillary(More)