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Aluminium adjuvants, typically referred to as 'alum', are the most commonly used adjuvants in human and animal vaccines worldwide, yet the mechanism underlying the stimulation of the immune system by alum remains unknown. Toll-like receptors are critical in sensing infections and are therefore common targets of various adjuvants used in immunological(More)
The effect of modafinil on endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release in the medial preoptic area (MPA) and posterior hypothalamus (PH) and the role of local 5-HT3 receptors in this effect was investigated in the awake rat using in vivo microdialysis. Modafinil (30-100 mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently decreased GABA release from the MPA, while only the(More)
We describe a Bayesian inference scheme for quantifying the active physiology of neuronal ensembles using local field recordings of synaptic potentials. This entails the inversion of a generative neural mass model of steady-state spectral activity. The inversion uses Expectation Maximization (EM) to furnish the posterior probability of key synaptic(More)
By using in vivo microdialysis it was found that one of the main functions of striatal dopamine D1 receptors is to selectively facilitate GABAergic neurotransmission in the 'direct' strioentopeduncular pathway. D1 receptors localized in the entopeduncular nucleus were also found to facilitate GABA release. However, results obtained from in vivo(More)
We used in vivo microdialysis to investigate the effects of local perfusion with the AChE inhibitor neostigmine on the basal and haloperidol evoked increase in dialysate dopamine levels in the dorsolateral and fundus striata of the bilaterally implanted halothane anaesthetized rat. In the absence of neostigmine basal dopamine was consistently higher in the(More)
Neuropathic pain may be effectively relieved by electric stimulation of the spinal cord (SCS). However, the underlying mechanisms for the ensuing pain relief are poorly understood. In a rat model of neuropathy displaying hypersensitivity to innocuous tactile stimuli, (allodynia), we have earlier demonstrated that SCS may normalise withdrawal response(More)
Recent studies have shown the existence of a specific antagonistic interaction between adenosine A2a receptors and dopamine D2 receptors in the brain. This A2a-D2 interaction seems to be essential for the behavioural effects of adenosine agonists and antagonists, like caffeine. In the present study quantitative receptor autoradiography and brain(More)
Recent pharmacological data suggest that a receptor-receptor interaction between adenosine A2 and dopamine D2 receptors in the brain underlies the behavioral effects of adenosine agonists and adenosine antagonists, such as caffeine and theophylline. According to this interaction, stimulation of A2 receptors inhibits and their blockade potentiates the(More)
The effects of modafinil on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission in the rat medial preoptic area (MPA) and posterior hypothalamus (PH), are analysed. Modafinil (30-300 mg/kg) increased glutamate and decreased GABA levels in the MPA and PH. Local perfusion with the GABAA agonist muscimol (10 microM), reduced, while the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (1(More)