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Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) was isolated from populations of Pacific sardine Sardinops sagax from the coastal waters of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, and central and southern California, USA. The virus was also isolated from Pacific mackerel Scomber japonicus in southern California, from eulachon or smelt Thaleichthys pacificus,(More)
To improve our understanding of the genetic basis of fish disease, we developed a pathogen model, using zebrafish (Danio rerio) and spring virema of carp virus (SVCV). Replicate groups of 10 fish were acclimated to 20 or 24 degrees C, then were exposed to SVCV concentrations of 10(3) to 10(5) plaque-forming units per milliliter (PFU/ml) of water and(More)
The fish rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was rapidly inactivated by extremely low concentrations of iodine in water. A 99.9% virus reduction was obtained in 7.5 s when virus (10 PFU/ml) and iodine (0.1 mg/liter, final concentration) were combined in distilled-deionized or hatchery water. Iodine efficacy decreased at pHs greater(More)
Beginning in 1988, the Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line was used to isolate a novel virus from spawning adult trout in the state of California, USA. Termed the cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) virus (CTV), the small, round virus was not associated with disease, but was subsequently found to be present in an increasing number of trout(More)
During both regulatory and routine surveillance sampling of baitfish from the states of Illinois, Minnesota, Montana, and Wisconsin, USA, isolates (n = 20) of a previously unknown picornavirus were obtained from kidney/spleen or entire viscera of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and brassy minnows (Hybognathus hankinsoni). Following the appearance of a(More)
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is an aquatic rhabdovirus that infects salmonids in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, Europe, and Asia. Isolates of IHNV have been phylogenetically classified into three major viral genogroups, designated U, M, and L. To characterize virulence of IHNV in the context of these three viral genogroups,(More)
Twelve neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the fish rhabdovirus, infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), were used to select 20 MAb escape mutants. The nucleotide sequence of the entire glycoprotein (G) gene was determined for six mutants representing differing cross-neutralization patterns and each had a single nucleotide change(More)
Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes the lethal disease infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in juvenile salmon and trout. The nucleocapsid (N) protein gene and partial glycoprotein (G) gene (nucleotides 457 to 1061) of the European isolates IT-217A, FR-32/87, DE-DF 13/98 11621, DE-DF 4/99-8/99, AU-9695338 and RU-FR1 were sequenced and(More)
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes disease in a broad range of marine and freshwater hosts. The known geographic range includes the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and recently it has invaded the Great Lakes region of North America. The goal of this work was to characterize genetic diversity of Great Lakes VHSV(More)