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With their power to shape animal morphology, few genes have captured the imagination of biologists as the evolutionarily conserved members of the Hox clusters have done. Recent research has provided new insight into how Hox proteins cause morphological diversity at the organismal and evolutionary levels. Furthermore, an expanding collection of sequences(More)
Choanoflagellates are the closest known relatives of metazoans. To discover potential molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of metazoan multicellularity, we sequenced and analysed the genome of the unicellular choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis. The genome contains approximately 9,200 intron-rich genes, including a number that encode cell(More)
Hox proteins control morphological diversity along the anterior-posterior body axis of animals, but the cellular processes they directly regulate are poorly understood. We show that during early Drosophila development, the Hox protein Deformed (Dfd) maintains the boundary between the maxillary and mandibular head lobes by activating localized apoptosis. Dfd(More)
A fascinating question in biology is how molecular changes in developmental pathways lead to macroevolutionary changes in morphology. Mutations in homeotic (Hox) genes have long been suggested as potential causes of morphological evolution, and there is abundant evidence that some changes in Hox expression patterns correlate with transitions in animal axial(More)
We present a fluorescence-based, multiplex in situ hybridization method that permits the simultaneous detection of five differently labeled antisense RNA probes and up to seven differ-ent transcripts in a single Drosophila embryo. We also show that it should be possible to increase the number of detected transcripts substantially with nascent transcript(More)
We tested whether Artemia abd-A could repress limbs in Drosophila embryos, and found that although abd-A transcripts were produced, ABD-A protein was not. Similarly, developing Artemia epidermal cells showed expression of abd-A transcripts without accumulation of ABD-A protein. This finding in Artemia reveals a new variation in Hox gene function that is(More)
Mammalian homeo box genes have been identified on the basis of sequence homology to Drosophila homeotic and segmentation genes. These studies examine the distribution of transcripts from two mouse homeo box genes, Hox-2.1 and Hox-3.1, throughout the latter third of prenatal development. Transcripts from these genes are regionally localized along the(More)
The Grainy head (GRH) family of transcription factors are crucial for the development and repair of epidermal barriers in all animals in which they have been studied. This is a high-level functional conservation, as the known structural and enzymatic genes regulated by GRH proteins differ between species depending on the type of epidermal barrier being(More)
The sites of transcript accumulation for six different homeotic loci of the Antennapedia and bithorax gene complexes (ANT-C and BX-C) were identified within embryo tissue sections by in situ hybridization. These six loci belong to the Antennapedia class of the homeo box gene family. Transcripts encoded by each locus are detected primarily in discrete,(More)
We used wounded Drosophila embryos to define an evolutionarily conserved pathway for repairing the epidermal surface barrier. This pathway includes a wound response enhancer from the Ddc gene that requires grainy head (grh) function and binding sites for the Grh transcription factor. At the signaling level, tyrosine kinase and extracellular signal-regulated(More)