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Six pigeons were trained in sessions composed of seven components, each arranged with a different concurrent-schedule reinforcer ratio. These components occurred in an irregular order with equal frequency, separated by 10-s blackouts. No signals differentiated the different reinforcer ratios. Conditions lasted 50 sessions, and data were collected from the(More)
  • W Baum, J Kraft
  • 1998
If a group of foragers distributes among resource patches according to the ideal free distribution, the relative number of foragers in each patch should match the relative amount of resource obtained there, unless deviations arise from factors such as incomplete information or interforager interference. In analogy to individual choice, such effects may(More)
  • W M Baum
  • 1979
Almost all of 103 sets of data from 23 different studies of choice conformed closely to the equation: log (B(1)/B(2)) = a log (r(1)/r(2)) + log b, where B(1) and B(2) are either numbers of responses or times spent at Alternatives 1 and 2, r(1) and r(2) are the rates of reinforcement obtained from Alternatives 1 and 2, and a and b are empirical constants.(More)
Pigeons were trained in a procedure in which sessions included seven four- or 10-reinforcer components, each providing a different reinforcer ratio that ranged from 27:1 to 1:27. The components were arranged in random order, and no signals differentiated the component reinforcer ratios. Each condition lasted 50 sessions, and the data from the last 35(More)
  • W M Baum
  • 1993
TWO DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RATIO AND INTERVAL PERFORMANCE ARE WELL KNOWN: (a) Higher rates occur on ratio schedules, and (b) ratio schedules are unable to maintain responding at low rates of reinforcement (ratio "strain"). A third phenomenon, a downturn in response rate at the highest rates of reinforcement, is well documented for ratio schedules and is(More)
Six pigeons were trained on concurrent variable-interval schedules. Sessions consisted of seven components, each lasting 10 reinforcers, with the conditions of reinforcement differing between components. The component sequence was randomly selected without replacement. In Experiment 1, the concurrent-schedule reinforcer ratios in components were all equal(More)
1 2 Applying evolutionary models to the laboratory study 3 of social learning Abstract 14 Cultural evolution is driven, in part, by the strategies that individuals employ to acquire behavior 15 from others. These strategies themselves are partly products of natural selection, making the study of 16 social learning an inherently Darwinian project. Formal(More)
  • W M Baum
  • 1982
Since foraging in nature can be viewed as instrumental behavior, choice between sources of food, known as "patches," can be viewed as choice between instrumental response alternatives. Whereas the travel required to change alternatives deters changeover in nature, the changeover delay (COD) usually deters changeover in the laboratory. In this experiment,(More)
Molar and molecular views of behavior imply different approaches to data analysis. The molecular view privileges moment-to-moment analyses, whereas the molar view supports analysis of more and less extended activities. In concurrent performance, the molar view supports study of both extended patterns of choice and more local patterns of visiting the choice(More)
The ideal free distribution theory (Fretwell & Lucas, 1970) predicts that the ratio of foragers at two patches will equal the ratio of food resources obtained at the two patches. The theory assumes that foragers have "perfect knowledge" of patch profitability and that patch choice maximizes fitness. How foragers assess patch profitability has been debated(More)