William M Wardell

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Since the modern era of drug regulation began in the early 1960s, fewer new drugs have been approved for marketing in the United States than in the United Kingdom. We examined whether information can be obtained about the relative safety of higher and lower introductory rate policies by comparing each country's record of drugs that have been discontinued(More)
Drug development in the United States has been characterized by: (1) high attrition and correspondingly low success rates of drug candidates passing through the development sys(2) a steady decline in new chemical entities (NCEs) entering clinical r e~ea rch ,~ -~ and (3) increasingly lengthy and more costly periods required for clinical and regulatory(More)
The residual effects of three hypnotics were investigated by the method of 24-h polygraphy (EEG, EMG, and EOG). The drugs were triazolam 0.25 mg and 0.5 mg, flurazepam 15 mg and 30 mg, nitrazepam 5 mg and 10 mg, and placebo. The subjects were healthy volunteers, eight men and eight women with an average age of 34.3 years. The number of total polygraphic(More)
The analgesic efficacy and side-effects of a single parenteral dose of metkephamid acetate 70 mg were compared with those of pethidine (meperidine) hydrochloride 100 mg and placebo in a double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial. 30 out of 32 postoperative patients completed the study--10 in the metkephamid group, 11 in the pethidine group, and 9(More)
To test for sustained hypnotic efficacy, triazolam (0.6 mg) or flurazepam (30 mg) was given to chronic insomniac patients for 7 consecutive nights in parallel, double-blind design. Triazolam at this dose was an effective hypnotic by all usual subjective measures and did not produce appreciable hangover. Flurazepam performed similarly. For either drug,(More)