William M Tong

Learn More
Hybrid reconfigurable logic circuits were fabricated by integrating memristor-based crossbars onto a foundry-built CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) platform using nanoimprint lithography, as well as materials and processes that were compatible with the CMOS. Titanium dioxide thin-film memristors served as the configuration bits and switches in(More)
High density metal cross bars at 17 nm half-pitch were fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. Utilizing the superlattice nanowire pattern transfer technique, a 300-layer GaAs/AlGaAs superlattice was employed to produce an array of 150 Si nanowires (15 nm wide at 34 nm pitch) as an imprinting mold. A successful reproduction of the Si nanowire pattern was(More)
The Caco-2 cell line was utilized to analyze the role of nutrient factors such as calcium, vitamin D and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in epigenetic control of human colon carcinoma cell growth. Proliferative signals from either low extracellular calcium or EGF, respectively, are transduced in Caco-2 cells via an increase in c-myc proto-oncogene mRNA and(More)
Resist adhesion to the mold is one of the challenges for nanoimprint lithography. The main approach to overcoming it is to apply a self-assembled monolayer of an organosilane release agent to the mold surface, either in the solution phase or vapor phase. We compared the atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, and(More)
We introduce the concept of wafer bowing to affect nanoimprinting. This approach allows a design that can fit the key imprinting mechanism into a compact module, which we have constructed and demonstrated with an overlay and resolution of <0.5 microm and <10 nm, respectively. In the short term, this wafer bowing approach makes nanoimprint lithography much(More)
The human colon adenocarcinoma-derived cell line Caco-2 was used as a model system to study the interaction of epidermal growth factors (EGF) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in control of colorectal cancer cell growth. The mitogenic stimulus of EGF was rapidly transduced via apical and basal membrane receptors alike into elevation of c-myc(More)
In situ hybridization on human colon tissue demonstrates that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA expression is strongly increased during tumour progression. To obtain test systems to evaluate the relevance of growth factor action during carcinogenesis, primary cultures from human colorectal carcinomas were established. EGFR distribution was(More)
Because the efficacy of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1alpha,25-(OH)2D3] in treatment of colon cancer might critically depend on its ability to specifically counteract epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated tumor cell growth, we utilized human colon adenocarcinoma-derived cells in primary culture as well as the Caco-2 cell line to elucidate possible(More)
Primary cultures derived from pre-cancerous and cancerous human colon tissue are essential for understanding normal and abnormal growth function in the large intestine. Here presented are (i) the methodology for routine establishment of primary cultures of normal, adenoma- and carcinoma-derived cells, and (ii) data for the apparently protective role of(More)
Resist detachment from the substrate during mold-substrate separation is one of the key challenges for nanoimprint lithography as the pitch of features decreases. We analyzed the problem by considering the surface and interfacial free energies of the initial state and the possible final states of the mold-polymer-substrate system and designed the chemistry(More)