Learn More
Cathelicidin LL-37 is one of the few human bactericidal peptides with potent antistaphylococcal activity. In this study we examined the susceptibility of LL-37 to proteolytic degradation by two major proteinases produced by Staphylococcus aureus, a metalloproteinase (aureolysin) and a glutamylendopeptidase (V8 protease). We found that aureolysin cleaved and(More)
The mtr (multiple transferable resistance) system of Neisseria gonorrhoeae determines levels of gonococcal resistance to hydrophobic agents (HAs), including detergent-like fatty acids and bile salts that bathe certain mucosal surfaces. The genetic organization of the mtr system was determined and found to consist of the mtrR gene, which encodes a(More)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is evolving into a superbug with resistance to previously and currently recommended antimicrobials for treatment of gonorrhea, which is a major public health concern globally. Given the global nature of gonorrhea, the high rate of usage of antimicrobials, suboptimal control and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and treatment(More)
CAP37, an antimicrobial protein of human neutrophil granules, is a specific chemoattractant for monocytes. Purified to homogeneity by sequential chromatography over carboxymethyl Sephadex, G-75 Sephadex, and hydrophobic interaction HPLC, demonstratively endotoxin-free CAP37 was maximally chemotactic over a range of 1.3 X 10(-9)-10(-8) M. Thus it was active(More)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a strict human pathogen that causes the sexually transmitted infection termed gonorrhea. The gonococcus can survive extracellularly and intracellularly, but in both environments the bacteria must acquire iron from host proteins for survival. However, upon infection the host uses a defensive response by limiting the bioavailability(More)
The mtr (multiple transferable resistance) system of Neisseria gonorrhoeae mediates resistance of gonococci to structurally diverse hydrophobic agents (HAs) through an energy-dependent efflux process. Recently, complete or partial ORFs that encode membrane proteins (MtrC, MtrD, MtrE) forming an efflux pump responsible for removal of HAs from gonococci were(More)
Active efflux of antimicrobial substances is likely to be an important bacterial defense against inhibitory host factors inherent to different body sites. Two well-characterized multidrug resistance efflux systems (MtrCDE and FarAB-MtrE) exist in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a bacterial pathogen of the human genital mucosae. In vitro studies suggest that the(More)
The farAB operon of Neisseria gonorrhoeae encodes an efflux pump which mediates gonococcal resistance to antibacterial fatty acids. It was previously observed that expression of the farAB operon was positively regulated by MtrR, which is a repressor of the mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump system (E.-H. Lee and W. M. Shafer, Mol. Microbiol. 33:839-845, 1999). This(More)
Single-dose azithromycin therapy has recently been used in Uruguay for the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal infections. As part of an active surveillance study to monitor the emergence of antibiotic resistance in gonococcal isolates, we examined the levels of azithromycin susceptibility in 51 consecutive isolates obtained from males with uncomplicated(More)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), in addition to their antibacterial properties, are also chemotactic and signalling molecules that connect the innate and adaptive immune responses. The role of AMP [alpha defensins, LL-37, a cathepsin G-derived peptide (CG117-136), protegrins (PG-1), polymyxin B (PMX) and LLP1] in modulating the respiratory burst response in(More)