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Human adenocarcinomas commonly harbor mutations in the KRAS and MYC proto-oncogenes and the TP53 tumor suppressor gene. All three genetic lesions are potentially pro-angiogenic, as they sustain production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Yet Kras-transformed mouse colonocytes lacking p53 formed indolent, poorly vascularized tumors, whereas(More)
The largest outbreak on record of Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) occurred in Uganda from August 2000 to January 2001. The outbreak was centered in the Gulu district of northern Uganda, with secondary transmission to other districts. After the initial diagnosis of Sudan ebolavirus by the National Institute for Virology in Johannesburg, South Africa, a(More)
The effect of anti-vascular agents on the growth of experimental tumors is well studied. Their impact on tumor vasculature, the primary therapeutic target of these agents, is not as well characterized, even though this primarily determines treatment outcome. Hypothesizing that the response of vessels to therapy is influenced by their stage of maturation, we(More)
BACKGROUND Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors have shown only modest clinical activity when used as single agents to treat cancers. They decrease tumor cell expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Hypothesizing that this might normalize tumor vasculature, we examined the(More)
Progression of tumors to invasive and metastatic forms requires that tumor cells undergo dramatic morphologic changes, a process regulated by Rho GTPases. Elevated expression of RhoA and RhoC, as well as the Rho effector proteins ROCK I and ROCK II, are commonly observed in human cancers and are often associated with more invasive and metastatic phenotypes.(More)
Diffuse optical methods were used to monitor two different therapies in K1735 malignant mouse melanoma tumor models: anti-vascular therapy and radiation therapy. Anti-vascular therapy induced acute variation in hemodynamic parameters within an hour, and radiation therapy induced longitudinal changes within 2 weeks. During anti-vascular therapy, the drug(More)
Activation of the Raf-MEK-ERK signal transduction pathway in endothelial cells is required for angiogenesis. Raf is the kinase most efficiently inhibited by the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib, which has shown activity against certain human cancers in clinical trials. To understand the mechanisms underlying this activity, we studied how it controlled growth(More)
This study investigated whether a microbubble-containing ultrasound contrast agent had a role in the antivascular action of physiotherapy ultrasound on tumor neovasculature. Ultrasound images (B-mode and contrast-enhanced power Doppler [0.02 mL Definity]) were made of 22 murine melanomas (K1735(22)). The tumor was insonated (I(SATA) = 1.7 W cm(-2), 1 MHz,(More)
STAT3 plays important roles in cell proliferation and survival signaling and is often constitutively activated in transformed cells. In this study, we examined STAT3 activation in endothelial cells (EC) during angiogenic activation and therapeutic angiogenesis inhibition. VEGF stimulation of cultured EC induced STAT3 phosphorylation by a VEGFR2- and(More)
This study was aimed at determining if physiotherapy ultrasound (US) affected the fragile and leaky angiogenic blood vessels in a tumor. In 22 C3HV/HeN mice, a subcutaneous melanoma (K1735(22)) was insonated (1, 2 or 3 min) with continuous 1-MHz low-intensity (spatial-average temporal-average = 2.28 W cm(-2)), physiotherapy US. Contrast-enhanced (0.1 mL(More)