William M Bowen

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This article presents a review of major empirical research on environmental justice. Forty-two empirical research studies spanning three decades were evaluated and categorized on the basis of how well they meet reasonable scientific standards. Twelve of those studies are described and critiqued in detail, and an overview of trends in the literature is(More)
Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) is a well-known regulator of cell division, motility, and survival in most cell types. Recently, we characterized a novel protein that we call PI3K Interacting Protein 1 (PIK3IP1), which binds to the p110 catalytic subunit of PI3K and reduces its activity in vitro. Little is known about the role of PIK3IP1 in normal and(More)
Does online availability boost citations? Using a panel of citations to economics and business journals, we show that the enormous effects found in previous studies were an artifact of their failure to control for article quality, disappearing once fixed effects are added as controls. The absence of aggregate effects masks heterogeneity across platforms:(More)
Introduction of a rapid methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) polymerase chain reaction assay, with physician education and pharmacist guidance, did not significantly reduce excessive empiric prescription of MRSA-active antibiotics despite the test's accuracy and potential to substantially reduce inappropriate antibiotic use.
Thiamine deficiency (TD) models the selective neurodegeneration that accompanies the mild impairment of oxidative metabolism, which is observed in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Several markers of inflammation accompany neuronal death in TD and in these diseases. Studies in the submedial thalamic nucleus (SmTN), the region most sensitive to TD,(More)
An important criticism of race-based higher education admission preferences is that they may hurt minority students who attend more selective schools than they would in the absence of such preferences. We categorize the non-experimental research designs available for the study of so-called “mismatch” effects and evaluate the likely biases in each. We select(More)
A general procedure is proposed for the rapid development of a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) separation that is "orthogonal" to a pre-existing ("primary") method for the RP-LC separation of a given sample. The procedure involves a change of the mobile-phase organic solvent (B-solvent), the replacement of the primary column by one of very(More)
A novel application of near-infrared (near-IR) spectroscopy for the on-line determination of nanoparticle size of a drug compound in a high solids dispersion is described. The on-line spectroscopic technique provides real-time data for process monitoring and control and overcomes the limitations that are encountered using laboratory-based instrumentation(More)
AnalyaLv of data on work disabilety from the 1970 Decennial Census &percent sample reveal8 that, even after standardizing for age, Qcreaeed education is associated with lower level8 of dieability. In addition, difference8 in educational attainment arc an important factor in explaining racial differences in the proportion of the population who are disabled.(More)
PURPOSE To describe a carpal tunnel release technique using the MANOS Carpal Tunnel Release device, with preliminary results in 52 patients. METHODS The MANOS Carpal Tunnel Release device is a blade that divides the transverse carpal ligament using wrist and palm skin punctures. The awake patient provides feedback as the surgeon navigates a(More)