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Gap junctions are widely expressed in the various cell types of the central nervous system. These specialized membrane intercellular junctions provide the morphological support for direct electrical and biochemical communication between adjacent cells. This intercellular coupling is controlled by neurotransmitters and other endogenous compounds produced and(More)
Brain inflammation is characterized by a reactive gliosis involving the activation of astrocytes and microglia. This process, common to many brain injuries and diseases, underlies important phenotypic changes in these two glial cell types. One characteristic feature of astrocytes is their high level of intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions.(More)
Nucleotides are signaling molecules involved in variety of interactions between neurons, between glial cells as well as between neurons and glial cells. In addition, ATP and other nucleotides are massively released following brain insults, including inflammation, and may thereby be involved in mechanisms of cerebral injury. Recent concepts have shown that(More)
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent and pleiotropic bioactive lysophospholipid mostly released by activated platelets that acts on its target cells through its own G protein-coupled receptors. We have previously reported that mouse striatal astrocytes expressed mRNAs for S1P1 and S1P3 receptors and proliferate in response to S1P. Here, we investigated(More)
Glufosinate-ammonium (GLA), the active compound of a worldwide-used herbicide, acts by inhibiting the plant glutamine synthetase (GS) leading to a lethal accumulation of ammonia. GS plays a pivotal role in the mammalian brain where it allows neurotransmitter glutamate recycling within astroglia. Clinical studies report that an acute GLA ingestion induces(More)
Neurons and brain macrophages (BM), respectively, increase and inhibit gap junctional communication (GJC) and connexin expression in cultured astrocytes. Thus, in brain diseases and injuries, neuronal death associated with the BM activation may decrease GJC in astrocytes and therefore have a physiopathological relevance.
We have investigated the influence of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content on the retrograde control of skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channels activity by ryanodine receptors (RyR). The effects of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and thapsigargin (TG), two structurally unrelated inhibitors of SR Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), were examined on the(More)
Phosphinotricin (L-PPT) is the active compound of a broad-spectrum herbicide. Acute poisoning with L-PPT has various clinical manifestations, including seizures and convulsions. However, the exact mechanism of L-PPT toxicity remains unclear. The present study addressed the role of L-PPT, in the excitability of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs). In(More)
Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches that detect biomarkers associated with neural activity would allow more direct observation of brain function than current functional MRI based on blood-oxygen-level-dependent contrast. Our objective was to create a synthetic molecular platform with appropriate recognition moieties for zwitterionic(More)
In the present study we investigated structural and metabolic modifications of the brain in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome (DS) using both in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRI was performed for further texture analysis and changes in texture parameters, including mean grey levels, contrast(More)