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BACKGROUND The anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody trastuzumab improves outcomes in patients with node-positive HER2+ early breast cancer. Given trastuzumab's high cost, we aimed to estimate its cost-effectiveness by heterogeneity in age and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, which has(More)
We employ a novel approach to identify overbidding in the field. We compare auction prices to fixed prices for the same item on the same webpage. In detailed board-game data, 42 percent of auctions exceed the simultaneous fixed price. The result replicates in a broad cross-section of auctions (48 percent). A small fraction of overbidders, 17 percent, suces(More)
What are the key determinants of financial development and growth? A large literature debates the relative importance of countries' legal and political environment. In this paper , I present evidence from ancient Rome, where an early form of shareholder company, the societas publicanorum, developed. I show that the societas publicanorum flourished in a(More)
Two algorithms for booking courses of radiotherapy treatment sessions for the dynamic arrival of patients in a parallel machine environment are developed. Patients vary by due date, by which they should start their treatments, clinical category and treatment machine requirement. The first algorithm, mimicking current practice, books patients forward from(More)
Clonal proliferation in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) is driven by somatic mutations in JAK2, CALR or MPL, but the contribution of inherited factors is poorly characterized. Using a three-stage genome-wide association study of 3,437 MPN cases and 10,083 controls, we identify two SNPs with genome-wide significance in JAK2(V617F)-negative MPN: rs12339666(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether increasing calcium intake from dietary sources affects bone mineral density (BMD) and, if so, whether the effects are similar to those of calcium supplements. DESIGN Random effects meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES Ovid Medline, Embase, Pubmed, and references from relevant systematic reviews.(More)
How does job security influence productivity? I create a dataset from the bibliographic records of the National Bureau of Economic Research working paper series and from hand collected data from individual curricula vitae to compare productivity of professors before and after tenure. This paper uses a fuzzy regression discontinuity design with fixed effects(More)
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