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Bipolar disorder or manic depressive illness is a major psychiatric disorder that is characterized by fluctuation between two abnormal mood states. Mania is accompanied by symptoms of euphoria, irritability, or excitation, whereas depression is associated with low mood and decreased motivation and energy. The etiology is currently unknown; however, numerous(More)
Adenovirus type 5 deletion mutants that lack portions of their cis-acting DNA encapsidation signal synthesized nearly normal levels of viral DNA and late polypeptides but failed to efficiently package the DNA into virus particles. A series of mutant viruses carrying small deletions were produced and used to identify a repeated element (AGTAAATTTGGGC and(More)
The PDE4A (type IV) cAMP-specific, rolipram-inhibited phosphodiesterase RPDE-6 (RNPDE4A5), when transiently expressed in COS7 cells, could be complexed with the v-Src-SH3 domain expressed as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein. RPDE-6 did not interact with GST itself. This complex was not disrupted by treatment with high NaCl concentration(More)
P2X3 is one receptor of a family of seven ligand-gated ion channels responding to purines. Increasing evidence indicates its involvement in neuronal signaling and in pain. However, there is currently no selective inhibitor known for this subtype. In order to obtain such a specific inhibitor, a variety of antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) against rat P2X3 was(More)
Double stranded, short interfering RNAs (siRNA) of 21-22 nt length initiate a sequence-specific, post-trancriptional gene silencing in animals and plants known as RNA interference (RNAi). Here we show that RNAi can block a pathophysiological pain response and provide relief from neuropathic pain in a rat disease model by down regulating an endogenous,(More)
The excitation of nociceptive sensory neurons by ATP released in injured tissue is believed to be mediated partly by P2X3 receptors. Although an analysis of P2X3 knock-out mice has revealed some deficits in nociceptive signaling, detailed analysis of the role of these receptors is hampered by the lack of potent specific pharmacological tools. Here we have(More)
The lymphokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) is responsible for autocrine cell cycle progression and regulation of immune responses. Uncontrolled secretion of IL-2 results in adverse reactions ranging from anergy, to aberrant T cell activation, to autoimmunity. With the use of fluorescent in situ hybridization and single-cell polymerase chain reaction in cells with(More)
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system where they are thought to regulate glia cell function. The phosphorylated version of fingolimod/FTY720 (FTY720P) is active on a broad spectrum of S1P receptors and the parent compound is currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.(More)
Synthetic 21-bp-long short interfering RNAs (siRNA) can stimulate sequence-specific mRNA degradation in mammalian cell cultures, a process referred to as RNA interference (RNAi). In the present study, the potential of RNAi was compared to the traditional antisense approach, acting mainly via RnaseH, for targeting the recombinant rat pain-related(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional homodimeric polypeptide with potent actions upon many target cells, including those of mesenchymal and haemopoietic lineage. The recent reports of high levels of the cytokine in rheumatoid synovium and synovial fluid, prompted this study into the effect of intra-articular injection of TGF(More)