William L. Payne

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Here it is reported that the incidence of mutators among isolates of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica is high (over 1 percent). These findings counter the theory, founded on studies with laboratory-attenuated strains, that suggests mutators are rare among bacterial populations. Defects in methyl-directed mismatch repair underlie all(More)
Mismatch amplification mutation assay primers, specific for a unique base substitution in uidA of Escherichia coli O157:H7, was coupled with primers for the Shiga-like toxin I (SLT-I) and SLT-II genes in a multiplex PCR assay. Analysis of 108 bacteria showed that all Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 strains were identified simultaneously with the SLT types(More)
A novel sequence of 2.9 kb in the intergenic region between the mutS and rpoS genes of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and closely related strains replaces a sequence of 6.1 kb in E. coli K-12 strains. At the same locus in Shigella dysenteriae type 1, a sequence identical to that in O157:H7 is bounded by the IS1 insertion sequence element. Extensive polymorphism(More)
Patients in the Vegetative State (VS) do not produce overt motor behavior to command and are therefore considered to be unaware of themselves and of their environments. However, we recently showed that high-density electroencephalography (EEG) can be used to detect covert command-following in some VS patients. Due to its portability and inexpensiveness, EEG(More)
mutS mutators accelerate the bacterial mutation rate 100- to 1,000-fold and relax the barriers that normally restrict homeologous recombination. These mutators thus afford the opportunity for horizontal exchange of DNA between disparate strains. While much is known regarding the mutS phenotype, the evolutionary structure of the mutS(+) gene in Escherichia(More)
The genes that encode several of the enterotoxins produced by Escherichia coli have been cloned by recombinant DNA techniques. When the nucleotide sequence of these genes is determined, defined sequence oligonucleotides that include a part of these genes may be synthesized. A 22-base DNA hybridization probe was produced for each of 2 heat-stable E. coli(More)
Synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes were used in the colony hybridization test to examine the association between the Kanagawa phenomenon (KP) and the thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Representative V. parahaemolyticus strains with a variety of KP reactions and 17 other Vibrio species were examined for homology with(More)
The polymerase chain reaction was used to selectively amplify sequences within the cholera toxin operon from Vibrio cholerae O1. Oysters, crabmeat, shrimp, and lettuce were seeded with V. cholerae and then homogenized or washed with alkaline peptone water, followed by short-term (6- to 8-h) enrichment. A detection limit of as few as 1 V. cholerae CFU per 10(More)
Four methods were compared for detecting heat-labile toxin production by Escherichia coli: DNA colony hybridization, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the mouse Y-1 adrenal cell reaction. Although results of the methods were in general agreement, there were some differences in specificity and sensitivity. DNA colony hybridization was used to(More)
The probability of recovering pathogenic Escherichia coli from food by the Bacteriological Analytical Manual method was determined by the effects of several factors: the number of strains per food, the ability of pathogenic strains to survive enrichment, and the frequency of plasmid loss during enrichment. Biochemical patterns indicated the presence of(More)