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BACKGROUND Adiponectin's effects on systemic physiology and cell-specific responses are well-defined, but little is known about how this insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory adipokine reaches its target cells. All molecules face active and passive transport limitations, but adiponectin is particularly noteworthy due to the diverse size range and high(More)
The adipocyte-derived secretory factor adiponectin promotes insulin sensitivity, decreases inflammation and promotes cell survival. To date, no unifying mechanism explains how Users may view, print, copy, download and text and data-mine the content in such documents, for the purposes of academic research, subject always to the full Conditions of use: Author(More)
Circulating leptin and insulin convey information regarding energy stores to the central nervous system, particularly the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons regulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis and express leptin and insulin receptors. However, the physiological significance of concomitant leptin and insulin action on(More)
Mice lacking 5-HT 2C receptors (5-HT(2C)Rs) displayed hepatic insulin resistance, a phenotype normalized by re-expression of 5-HT(2C)Rs only in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. 5-HT(2C)R deficiency also abolished the anti-diabetic effects of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (a 5-HT(2C)R agonist); these effects were restored when 5-HT(2C)Rs were re-expressed(More)
OBJECTIVE We determined whether muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a role in the development of insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Muscle-specific transgenic mice expressing an inactive form of the AMPK alpha2 catalytic subunit (alpha2i TG) and their wild-type littermates were fed either a high-fat (60% kcal fat) or a control (10%(More)
Vascular dysfunction that accompanies obesity and insulin resistance may be mediated by lipid metabolites. We sought to determine if vascular ceramide leads to arterial dysfunction and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Pharmacological inhibition of de novo ceramide synthesis, using the Ser palmitoyl transferase inhibitor myriocin, and heterozygous(More)
As an adipokine in circulation, adiponectin has been extensively studied for its beneficial metabolic effects. While many important functions have been attributed to adiponectin under high-fat diet conditions, little is known about its essential role under regular chow. Employing a mouse model with inducible, acute β-cell ablation, we uncovered an essential(More)
Science is marked by the death of dogmas; the discovery that adipocytes are more than just lipid-storing cells but rather produce potent hormones is one such example that caught physiologists by surprise and reshaped our views of metabolism. While we once considered the adipocyte as a passive storage organ for efficient storage of long-term energy reserves(More)
We recently reported that local overexpression of VEGF-A in white adipose tissue (WAT) protects against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction. The observation that VEGF-A induces a "brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like" phenotype in WAT prompted us to further explore the direct function of VEGF-A in BAT. We utilized a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible, brown(More)
Pathological expansion of adipose tissue contributes to the metabolic syndrome. Distinct depots develop at various times under different physiological conditions. The transcriptional cascade mediating adipogenesis is established in vitro, and centres around a core program involving PPARγ and C/EBPα. We developed an inducible, adipocyte-specific knockout(More)