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BACKGROUND AND GOAL Studies assessing the relationship of serovars or genotypes to clinical manifestations of urogenital disease have produced contradictory results. Possible reasons for this include small sample sizes insufficient to reliably detect associations and failure to address potential confounding factors. Utilizing a large dataset and(More)
BACKGROUND Many sex partners of persons with gonorrhea or chlamydial infections are not treated, which leads to frequent reinfections and further transmission. METHODS We randomly assigned women and heterosexual men with gonorrhea or chlamydial infection to have their partners receive expedited treatment or standard referral. Patients in the(More)
BACKGROUND Repeated infection with C trachomatis increases the risk for serious sequelae: pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and chronic pelvic pain. A substantial proportion of women treated for C trachomatis infection are reinfected by an untreated male sex partner in the first several months after treatment. Effective strategies(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to define, among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attendees, (1) patterns of sex partner selection, (2) relative risks for gonococcal or chlamydial infection associated with each mixing pattern, and (3) selected links and potential and actual bridge populations. METHODS Mixing matrices were computed based on(More)
BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, and HSV reactivation increases plasma and genital HIV-1 levels. We studied HIV-1 levels during HSV suppression in coinfected persons in a placebo-controlled crossover trial. METHODS Twenty antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive(More)
OBJECTIVES Gonorrhea cases among men who have sex with men (MSM) declined in the early years of the HIV epidemic. We evaluated more recent trends in gonorrhea among MSM through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project. METHODS Isolates and case information were collected from 29 US sexually transmitted(More)
BACKGROUND HIV drug resistance surveillance is limited by recruitment and selection bias and by limited information regarding HIV incidence rates, secondary resistance, and treatment prevalence. METHODS A second-generation HIV sentinel surveillance among men who have sex with men (MSM), regardless of prior history of HIV screening, serostatus, or(More)
BACKGROUND Theorectical studies have highlighted the importance of patterns of choice of sex partner in the transmission and persistence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). GOAL To describe reported patterns of sexual mixing according to numbers of sex partners in STD clinics. STUDY DESIGN Patients attending public health clinics in Seattle,(More)
A randomized cross-over trial of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-suppressive therapy (valacyclovir, 500 mg twice daily, or placebo for 8 weeks, a 2-week washout period, then the alternative therapy for 8 weeks) was conducted among 20 Peruvian women coinfected with HSV-2 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who were not on antiretroviral(More)
OBJECTIVES Suppressive herpes simplex virus (HSV) therapy can decrease plasma, cervical, and rectal HIV-1 levels in HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected persons. We evaluated the effect of HSV-2 suppression on seminal HIV-1 levels. DESIGN Twenty antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-1/HSV-2 men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lima, Peru, with CD4 >200 cells/microl(More)