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Porcine testicular carbonyl reductase (PTCR) belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) superfamily and catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of ketones on steroids and prostaglandins. The enzyme shares nearly 85% sequence identity with the NADPH-dependent human 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase. The tertiary(More)
BACKGROUND The principal human estrogen, 17 beta-estradiol, is a potent stimulator of certain endocrine-dependent forms of breast cancer. Because human estrogenic 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (type I 17 beta-HSD) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of 17 beta-estradiol from the less potent estrogen, estrone, it is an attractive target for(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial 3 alpha,20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase reversibly oxidizes the 3 alpha and 20 beta hydroxyl groups of steroids derived from androstanes and pregnanes. It was the first short-chain dehydrogenase to be studied by X-ray crystallography. The previous description of the structure of this enzyme, at 2.6 A resolution, did not permit(More)
The short-chain oxidoreductase (SCOR) family of enzymes includes over 2000 members identified in sequenced genomes. Of these enzymes, approximately 200 have been characterized functionally, and the three-dimensional crystal structures of approximately 40 have been reported. Since some SCOR enzymes are involved in hypertension, diabetes, breast cancer, and(More)
Ionophores are antibiotics that induce ion transport across natural and artificial membranes. The specific function of a given ionophore depends upon its selectivity and the kinetics of ion capture, transport, and release. Systematic studies of complexed and uncomplexed forms of linear and cyclic ionophores provide insight into molecular mechanisms of ion(More)
beta-ketoacyl (acyl carrier protein) reductase (beta-k-ACPR) enzymes are essential to fatty acid synthesis in bacteria. The analyses revealed the most primitive member of the beta-k-ACPRs family was a NADP reductase where NADP was recognised by a Thr residue in the beta2alpha3 turn. Aromatic residue stacking at the dimer interface and a previously(More)
The x-ray structure of a short-chain dehydrogenase, the bacterial holo 3 alpha,20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.53), is described at 2.6 A resolution. This enzyme is active as a tetramer and crystallizes with four identical subunits in the asymmetric unit. It has the alpha/beta fold characteristic of the dinucleotide binding region. The fold(More)
Indenestrol A (IA) and indenestrol B (IB) are analogs and metabolites of diethylstilbestrol (DES). These compounds have high binding affinity with the estrogen receptor (ER) but possess weak uterotropic activity. Due to their chemical structures, IA and IB exist as mixtures of enantiomers. We investigated whether the poor biological activity of these(More)