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The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred by means of a single migration or multiple streams of migration from Siberia. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly(More)
We sequenced the genomes of a ∼7,000-year-old farmer from Germany and eight ∼8,000-year-old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analysed these and other ancient genomes with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who(More)
The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of(More)
We examined genetic diversity and population structure in the American landmass using 678 autosomal microsatellite markers genotyped in 422 individuals representing 24 Native American populations sampled from North, Central, and South America. These data were analyzed jointly with similar data available in 54 other indigenous populations worldwide,(More)
Admixture mapping is an economical and powerful approach for localizing disease genes in populations of recently mixed ancestry and has proven successful in African Americans. The method holds equal promise for Latinos, who typically inherit a mix of European, Native American, and African ancestry. However, admixture mapping in Latinos has not been(More)
In order to explore the diversity and selective signatures of duplication and deletion human copy-number variants (CNVs), we sequenced 236 individuals from 125 distinct human populations. We observed that duplications exhibit fundamentally different population genetic and selective signatures than deletions and are more likely to be stratified between human(More)
An association has previously been shown between antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis, the human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR4 molecule, and T cell recognition of an epitope of Borrelia burgdorferi outer-surface protein A (OspA163-175). We studied the frequencies of HLA-DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes in 121 patients with antibiotic-refractory or(More)
Coccidioidomycosis, a mild flulike illness in approximately 40% of infected persons, progresses to severe pulmonary or disseminated disease in 1% to 10% of symptomatic cases. We examined host genetic influences on disease severity among class II HLA loci and the ABO blood group. Participants included African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic persons with(More)
Infrared rays from sunlight permeate the earth's atmosphere, yet little is known about their interactions with living organisms. To learn whether they affect cell structure and function, we tested the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila. These unicellular eukaryotes aggregate in swarms near the surface of freshwater habitats, where direct and(More)
Although studies of HLA and disease now date back some 50 years, a principled understanding of that relationship has been slow to emerge. Here, we examine the associations of three HLA loci with medically refractory pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pALL) patients in a case–control study involving 2,438 cases and 41,750 controls. An analysis of(More)