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The evolution of eusociality is one of the major transitions in evolution, but the underlying genomic changes are unknown. We compared the genomes of 10 bee species that vary in social complexity, representing multiple independent transitions in social evolution, and report three major findings. First, many important genes show evidence of neutral evolution(More)
Osmia lignaria is a solitary bee that over-winters as a fully eclosed, cocooned, unfed adult. Our objective is to understand the effect of wintering temperature on diapause maintenance and termination in this species. We measure respiration rates and weight loss in individuals exposed to various wintering temperatures (0, 4, 7, 22 degrees C, outdoors) and(More)
The development of a bee species as a new crop pollinator starts with the identification of a pollination-limited crop production deficit and the selection of one or more candidate pollinator species. The process continues with a series of studies on the developmental biology, pollinating efficacy, nesting behaviour, preference for different nesting(More)
Partial clones of Megachile rotundata HSP90, HSP70, HSC70 and actin were developed by RT-PCR. These clones were used to generate probes to screen for the expression of their respective transcripts in heat-shocked pupae and in diapausing prepupae through post-diapausing pupae. Northern blot analysis revealed transcript sizes for MrHSP90, MrHSP70, MrHSC70,(More)
We propose a class of complex population dynamic models that combines new time-varying parameters and second-order time lags for describing univariate ecological time series data. The Kalman filter and likelihood function were used to estimate parameters of all models in the class for 31 data sets, and Schwarz's information criterion (SIC) was used to(More)
The impact of climate change on insect populations depends on specific life cycle traits and physiological adaptations. The solitary bee Osmia lignaria winters as a pre-emergent adult, and requires a period of cold temperature for winter diapause completion. It is a univoltine species, and diapause induction does not depend on photoperiod. To understand the(More)
Most insects from temperate areas enter diapause ahead of winter. Species diapausing in a feeding stage and accumulating metabolic reserves during permissive pre-wintering conditions are expected to enter diapause shortly before the onset of winter. In contrast, species diapausing in a non-feeding stage are expected to lower their metabolism as soon as(More)
The solitary bee Osmia lignaria Say continues to be developed as an orchard pollinator in the United States and southern Canada. Female bees are active during the early spring and construct nests consisting of a linear series of unlined cells delimited by mud partitions. Cells are provisioned with a pollen/nectar mass on which an egg is deposited, and nests(More)
During 1998-2003, we used populations of the solitary bee Osmia lignaria Say to pollinate a commercial sweet cherry orchard in northern Utah. Bee densities released each year ranged from 1290 to 1857 females/ha, with approximately twice as many males. Female progeny produced each year were greater than parental populations released, except in 2003, when(More)
The cuticular lipids of the cavity-nesting adult female solitary bees, Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and combined GC-mass spectrometry. The cuticular lipids of these female bees are mainly consisted of hydrocarbons. For O. lignaria, nearly 64% of the cuticular lipids(More)