William John Watkins

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Whole-cell assays were implemented to search for efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) of the three multidrug resistance efflux pumps (MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, MexEF-OprN) that contribute to fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Secondary assays were developed to identify lead compounds with exquisite activities as inhibitors. A(More)
Multidrug-resistance efflux pumps — in particular those belonging to the resistance-nodulation-cell-division (RND) family of transporters, with their unusually high degree of substrate promiscuity — significantly restrict the effectiveness of antibacterial therapy. Recent years have heralded remarkable insights into the structure and mechanisms of these(More)
Pyrimidinol carboxylic acids were designed as inhibitors of HIV-1 RNase H function. These molecules can coordinate to two divalent metal ions in the RNase H active site. Inhibition of enzymatic activity was measured in a biochemical assay, but no antiviral effect was observed. Binding was demonstrated via a solid state structure of the isolated p15-Ec(More)
A series of 4-oxo-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine derivatives, substituted at the 2-position with piperidines bearing quaternary ammonium salt side chains, were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to potentiate the activity of the fluoroquinolone levofloxacin (LVFX) and the beta-lactam aztreonam (AZT) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Attachment of the charged(More)
Efflux mechanisms have become broadly recognized as major components of resistance to many classes of antibiotics. Some efflux pumps selectively extrude specific antibiotics, while others, referred to as multidrug resistance (MDR) pumps, expel a variety of structurally diverse compounds with differing antibacterial modes of action. There are numerous(More)
BACKGROUND Previous meta-analyses have reported a significant association between pulmonary colonization with Ureaplasma and development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, because few studies reporting oxygen dependency at 36 weeks corrected gestation were previously available, we updated the systematic review and meta-analyses to evaluate the(More)
(6S)-6-Fluoroshikimic acid inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli B on minimal medium (MIC, 0.25 micrograms ml-1), and it protected mice challenged intraperitoneally with the same organism (50% protective dose, 0.06 mg kg of body weight-1). We propose that inhibitors of bacterial aromatic biosynthesis have the potential for use in human medicine.
The emergence of active efflux as a major causative factor in antibiotic resistance has been one of the most significant trends in antiinfective chemotherapy over the last decade. The phenomenon affects virtually all classes of antibiotics and frequently results in multi-drug resistant phenotypes. This review analyzes efflux pumps of clinical significance(More)
RATIONALE Few studies have investigated childhood respiratory outcomes of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and it is unclear if catch-up growth in these children influences lung function. OBJECTIVES We determined if lung function differed in 8- to 9-year-old children born at term with or without growth retardation, and, in the growth-retarded(More)
HIV-1 RNase H breaks down the intermediate RNA-DNA hybrids during reverse transcription, requiring two divalent metal ions for activity. Pyrimidinol carboxylic acid and N-hydroxy quinazolinedione inhibitors were designed to coordinate the two metal ions in the active site of RNase H. High-resolution (1.4 Å to 2.1 Å) crystal structures were determined with(More)