William John Gillespie

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CONTEXT Vitamin D or calcium supplementation may have effects on vascular disease and cancer. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to investigate whether vitamin D or calcium supplementation affects mortality, vascular disease, and cancer in older people. DESIGN AND SETTING The study included long-term follow-up of participants in a two by two factorial,(More)
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a risk factor for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Homocysteine (Hcy) induces redox stress, in part, by activating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the matrix and leads to blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Hcy competitively binds to gamma-aminbutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which are excitatory(More)
OBJECTIVES To identify patient-assessed health instruments specific to the knee and review evidence for reliability, validity and responsiveness. METHODS Instruments were identified through systematic searches of the literature. Information relating to instrument content, patient population, reliability, validity and responsiveness was extracted from(More)
The objective of this workshop was to provide a forum to discuss the reintroduction of metal on metal bearings for clinical use in total hip arthroplasty. Approximately 100 researchers clinicians, and industry representatives presented the state of the art interpretation of the metal on metal total hip replacement's past performance, and the clinical,(More)
BACKGROUND Wound infection and other hospital-acquired infections cause significant morbidity after internal fixation of fractures (osteosynthesis). The administration of antimicrobial agents (antibiotics) may reduce the frequency of infections. OBJECTIVES To determine whether the prophylactic administration of antibiotics in patients undergoing surgical(More)
BACKGROUND Wound and bone infections are frequently associated with open fractures of the extremities and may add significantly to the resulting morbidity. The administration of antibiotics is routinely used in developed countries as an adjunct to a comprehensive management protocol that also includes irrigation, surgical debridement and stabilisation when(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the effect of vitamin D on bone density and fractures in postmenopausal women. DATA SOURCE We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1966 to 1999 and examined citations of relevant articles and proceedings of international meetings. We contacted osteoporosis investigators and primary authors to identify additional studies and to obtain(More)
OBJECTIVES To present the updated results of systematic review of the current evidence for the effectiveness of hip protectors from reports of completed randomised trials, and to explore the evolution of that evidence. DESIGN Systematic review with meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES Cochrane Bone, Joint, and Muscle Trauma Group trials register (January 2005),(More)
OBJECTIVE To find if a particular quality score was better than others at validly scoring the quality of randomized controlled trials, both by examining the consistency of dividing studies into high and low quality and using a large study as a reference standard. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING Observational study of meta-analyses from the Cochrane Library.(More)