William J. Spencer

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In the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, DNA is amplified in vitro by a series of polymerization cycles consisting of three temperature-dependent steps: DNA denaturation, primer-template annealing, and DNA synthesis by a thermostable DNA polymerase. The purity and yield of the reaction products depend on several parameters, one of which is the(More)
Visual signal transduction takes place on the surface of flat membrane vesicles called photoreceptor discs, which reside inside the light-sensitive outer segment organelle of vertebrate photoreceptor cells. Although biochemical studies have indicated that discs are built with a handful of highly specialized proteins, proteomic studies have yielded databases(More)
The primary cilium is a highly conserved organelle housing specialized molecules responsible for receiving and processing extracellular signals. A recently discovered property shared across many cilia is the ability to release small vesicles called ectosomes, which are used for exchanging protein and genetic material among cells. In this study, we report a(More)
Sensory cilia are populated by a select group of signaling proteins that detect environmental stimuli. How these molecules are delivered to the sensory cilium and whether they rely on one another for specific transport remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether the visual pigment, rhodopsin, is critical for delivering other signaling proteins(More)
The light-sensing outer segments of photoreceptor cells harbor hundreds of flattened membranous discs containing the visual pigment, rhodopsin, and all the proteins necessary for visual signal transduction. PRCD (progressive rod-cone degeneration) protein is one of a few proteins residing specifically in photoreceptor discs, and the only one with completely(More)
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