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Daily biological rhythms are governed by an innate timekeeping mechanism, or 'circadian clock'. In mammals, a clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) comprises multiple autonomous single-cell oscillators, but it is unclear how SCN cells interact to form a tissue with coherent metabolic and electrical rhythms that might account for circadian animal(More)
The hypothesis is advanced that the circadian pacemaker in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is composed at the molecular level of a nonredundant double complex of circadian genes (per1, cry1, and per2, cry2). Each one of these sets would be sufficient for the maintenance of endogenous rhythmicity and thus constitute an oscillator. Each would have(More)
Circadian rhythms of locomotion (wheel-running activity) in 12 inbred mouse strains were recorded for interstrain differences in tau DD, the endogenous (free-running) period of the circadian pacemaker measured in constant environmental darkness. The results indicate that 1 or more genetic loci influence the value of tau DD, and a large (50 min) difference(More)
An unusual property of the circadian timekeeping systems of animals is rhythm "splitting," in which a single daily period of physical activity (usually measured as wheel running) dissociates into two stably coupled components about 12 hours apart; this behavior has been ascribed to a clock composed of two circadian oscillators cycling in antiphase. We(More)
Epidermal growth factor-responsive neural precursor cells were used as donor cells for transplantation into wild-type and myelin-deficient shiverer (shi) mice. The cells engrafted robustly within the CNS following intracerebroventricular and cisternal transplantation in neonatal mice. The cells adopted glial phenotypes, and some functioned as(More)
Animals have evolved many season-specific behavioural and physiological adaptations that allow them to both cope with and exploit the cyclic annual environment. Two classes of endogenous annual timekeeping mechanisms enable animals to track, anticipate and prepare for the seasons: a timer that measures an interval of several months and a clock that(More)
Previous anatomical and physiological studies have implicated the lateral habenula, and especially its medial division (LHbM), as a candidate component of the circadian timing system in rodents. We assayed lateral habenula rhythmicity in rodents using c-FOS immunohistochemistry and found a robust rhythm in immunoreactive cell counts in the LHbM, with higher(More)
The neuroanatomical system responsible for the generation and expression of the circadian vasopressin rhythm in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is investigated. CSF was serially withdrawn in individual, unanesthetized, unrestrained rats after neuroendocrine extirpations or stereotaxic brain lesions were made; the peptide was assayed using a sensitive and specific(More)
The circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) was characterized in the fetal rat by using 14C-labeled deoxyglucose to monitor glucose utilization (metabolic activity) of the nuclei. A clear day-night oscillation of metabolic activity was detectable in the fetal SCN from the 19th through the 21st days of gestation; the nuclei were(More)