Learn More
Until recently, large apex consumers were ubiquitous across the globe and had been for millions of years. The loss of these animals may be humankind's most pervasive influence on nature. Although such losses are widely viewed as an ethical and aesthetic problem, recent research reveals extensive cascading effects of their disappearance in marine,(More)
Large carnivores face serious threats and are experiencing massive declines in their populations and geographic ranges around the world. We highlight how these threats have affected the conservation status and ecological functioning of the 31 largest mammalian carnivores on Earth. Consistent with theory, empirical studies increasingly show that large(More)
1 By the early 1900s, Euro-Americans had extirpated gray wolves (Canis lupus) from most of the contiguous United States. Yellowstone National Park was not immune to wolf persecution and by the mid-1920s they were gone. After seven decades of absence in the park, gray wolves were reintroduced in 1995–1996, again completing the large predator guild (Smith et(More)
Top-down processes, via the direct and indirect effects of interspecific competitive killing (no consumption of the kill) or intraguild predation (consumption of the kill), can potentially influence the spatial distribution of terrestrial predators, but few studies have demonstrated the phenomenon at a continental scale. For example, in North America, grey(More)
" Predation risk " and " fear " are concepts well established in animal behavior literature. We expand these concepts to develop the model of the " landscape of fear ". The landscape of fear represents relative levels of predation risk as peaks and valleys that reflect the level of fear of predation a prey experiences in different parts of its area of use.(More)
There is a lack of scientific consensus about how top-down and bottom-up forces interact to structure terrestrial ecosystems. This is especially true for systems with large carnivore and herbivore species where the effects of predation versus food limitation on herbivores are controversial. Uncertainty exists whether top-down forces driven by large(More)
Large wild herbivores are crucial to ecosystems and human societies. We highlight the 74 largest terrestrial herbivore species on Earth (body mass ≥100 kg), the threats they face, their important and often overlooked ecosystem effects, and the conservation efforts needed to save them and their predators from extinction. Large herbivores are generally facing(More)
While patterns from trophic cascade studies have largely focused on density-mediated effects of predators on prey, there is increasing recognition that behaviorally mediated indirect effects of predators on prey can, at least in part, explain trophic cascade patterns. To determine if a relationship exists between predation risk perceived by elk (Cervus(More)
Wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park in 1995/96, likely reestablishing a trophic cascade involving wolves, elk, and woody browse species. The return of wolves may have also triggered a secondary trophic cascade involving bison, which are generally a minor prey species for wolves in northern Yellowstone. We hypothesize a sequence of events(More)