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How likely people are to think of themselves in terms of a given personal characteristic is predicted from the distinctiveness postulate that the person, when confronted by a complex stimulus (such as the self), selectively notices and encodes the stimulus in terms of what is most peculiar about it, since these peculiar characteristics are the most(More)
Previous studies (2, 5) have shown that merely giving a person arguments supporting his belief, without even a mention of possible counterarguments against the belief, has little efficiency in making that belief resistant to persuasion. The present study is designed to show that supportive defenses, when employed in specified ways, can contribute(More)
A discrimination theory of selective perception was used to predict that a given trait would be spontaneously salient in a person's self-concept to the exten that this trait was distinctive for the person within her or his social groups. Sixth-grade students' general and physical spontaneous self-concepts were elicited in their classroom settings. The(More)
T HE present study is one of a series comparing the relative effectiveness of various pretreatments in making initially unquestioned beliefs resistant to change when subsequently the person is forced to expose himself to strong counter-arguments against the belief. The theoretical point of departure of the present and the earlier studies is the postulate of(More)
It is assumed here that even as intimate and individualistic an experience as one's sense of self is affected by the social context in which the self-thoughts arise. As regards two major social worlds of childhood, family and school, it is postulated that the family's nurturent atmosphere fosters a more passive self-concept in contrast to a more dynamic(More)