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Previous studies (2, 5) have shown that merely giving a person arguments supporting his belief, without even a mention of possible counterarguments against the belief, has little efficiency in making that belief resistant to persuasion. The present study is designed to show that supportive defenses, when employed in specified ways, can contribute(More)
A discrimination theory of selective perception was used to predict that a given trait would be spontaneously salient in a person's self-concept to the exten that this trait was distinctive for the person within her or his social groups. Sixth-grade students' general and physical spontaneous self-concepts were elicited in their classroom settings. The(More)
T HE present study is one of a series comparing the relative effectiveness of various pretreatments in making initially unquestioned beliefs resistant to change when subsequently the person is forced to expose himself to strong counter-arguments against the belief. The theoretical point of departure of the present and the earlier studies is the postulate of(More)
It is assumed here that even as intimate and individualistic an experience as one's sense of self is affected by the social context in which the self-thoughts arise. As regards two major social worlds of childhood, family and school, it is postulated that the family's nurturent atmosphere fosters a more passive self-concept in contrast to a more dynamic(More)
How likely people are to think of themselves in terms of a given personal characteristic is predicted from the distinctiveness postulate that the person, when confronted by a complex stimulus (such as the self), selectively notices and encodes the stimulus in terms of what is most peculiar about it, since these peculiar characteristics are the most(More)
Insofar as people organize information about and evaluations of important topics in connected and coherent systems, attitudes may be changed from within by enhancing the salience of information already present virtually within the person's belief system without communicating new information from outside sources. A cognitive positivity bias is predicted such(More)
To correct a common imbalance in methodology courses, focusing almost entirely on hypothesis-testing issues to the neglect of hypothesis-generating issues which are at least as important, 49 creative heuristics are described, divided into 5 categories and 14 subcategories. Each of these heuristics has often been used to generate hypotheses in psychological(More)
Predicted differences in modes of thinking about self versus thinking about other people, derived from assumptions regarding one's privileged information about the self, were tested by comparing the types of verbs used in free descriptions of self versus the types of verbs used in free descriptions of other people. Three-minute responses to "Tell us about(More)
The distinctiveness postulate regarding selective perception implies that an aspect of a complex stimulus is likely to be noticed in direct proportion to its distinctiveness in the environment in which it is perceived. An implied prediction tested in the present study is that handedness is more salient in the self-concepts of left-handers than of(More)