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Corn seedlings release large amounts of terpenoid volatiles after they have been fed upon by caterpillars. Artificially damaged seedlings do not release these volatiles in significant amounts unless oral secretions from the caterpillars are applied to the damaged sites. Undamaged leaves, whether or not they are treated with oral secretions, do not release(More)
This paper demonstrates the necessity to consider plants as an essential and interactive component of biological control practices. Plants not only possess direct chemical and morphological defenses against herbivores but also benefit from indirect defenses provided by parasitoids and predators, which use herbivores as hosts or prey. Plants play an active(More)
Georgia's history and cotton production have been inseparably woven together since 1733, when the colony was founded and cotton was first planted in Trustee's Garden, near Savannah. The success of the Southeast Boll Weevil Eradication Program has played a major role in the recent revival of Georgia's cotton industry. The boll weevil first appeared in(More)
Predictions in integrated pest management on the compatibility of an insecticide with biological control often are based on incomplete screening tests. While measuring levels of mortality from direct insecticide exposure is a very common screening method, possible sublethal effects as a result of either direct or indirect insecticide exposure remain(More)
Parasitoids exploit numerous chemical cues to locate hosts and food. Whether they detect and learn chemicals foreign to their natural history has not been explored. We show that the parasitoid Microplitis croceipes can associate, with food or hosts, widely different chemicals outside their natural foraging encounters. When learned chemicals are subsequently(More)
Responses of individual females of the parasitoidCotesia marginiventris to the odors of four different complexes of host larvae feeding on leaves were observed in a four-arm olfactometer. The plant-host complexes were composed of fall armyworm (FAW) larvae or cabbage looper (CL) larvae feeding on either corn or cotton seedlings. Prior to testing, each(More)
The study was conducted to determine how various factors, including learning, influence the host-selection behavior of the larval parasitoid Cotesia (=Apanteles)marginiventris (Cresson). Frass, silk, and feeding damage fromSpodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) larvae elicited visits and antennal examinations by females of the parasitoid. Learning played a role(More)
This paper describes the verification methods and techniques that were established to verify the microarchitecture and architectural correctness of the z990 microprocessor and storage subsystem. The ring-based, four-book storage subsystem links 64 superscalar microprocessors together in this system. The verification process started at the unit level, which(More)