William J. Karnavas

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The rising fastball and the breaking curveball are impossible according to principles of physics and physiology, yet many baseball players claim they exist. The simulation and model presented suggest that the rising fastball and breaking curveball are perceptual illusions caused by the batter misestimating the speed of the pitch. This model uses signals(More)
—The technique of sensitivity analysis is old and well known, but few modern papers include them. Perhaps this is because of the subtle tricks and custonrizations that have to be done to reap their benefits. The paper shows how to overcome some of the difficulties of performing sensitivity analyses. It draws examples from a broad range of generalizes the(More)
A sensitivity analysis is a powerful technique for understanding systems. This heuristic paper shows how to overcome some of the difficulties of performing sensitivity analyses. It draws examples from a broad range of fields: bioengineering, process control, decision making and system design. In particular, it examines sensitivity analyses of tradeoff(More)
The equations of physics for bat-ball collisions were coupled to the physiology of the muscle force-velocity relationship to compute the ideal bat weight for individual baseball players. The results of this coupling suggest that some batters use bats that are too heavy for them, and some batters use bats that are too light, but most experienced batters use(More)
Retrospective analysis of somal electrophysiology from intracellularly recorded, physiologically identified afferents demonstrates that neural nets can be readily trained to identify the type of peripheral receptor supplied. Specifically, cat spinal ganglion somata could be identified as innervating muscle spindles, hairs or high-threshold mechanoreceptors.(More)
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