William J. Karnavas

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The rising fastball and the breaking curveball are impossible according to principles of physics and physiology, yet many baseball players claim they exist. The simulation and model presented suggest that the rising fastball and breaking curveball are perceptual illusions caused by the batter misestimating the speed of the pitch. This model uses signals(More)
—The technique of sensitivity analysis is old and well known, but few modern papers include them. Perhaps this is because of the subtle tricks and custonrizations that have to be done to reap their benefits. The paper shows how to overcome some of the difficulties of performing sensitivity analyses. It draws examples from a broad range of generalizes the(More)
A sensitivity analysis is a powerful technique for understanding systems. This heuristic paper shows how to overcome some of the difficulties of performing sensitivity analyses. It draws examples from a broad range of fields: bioengineering, process control, decision making and system design. In particular, it examines sensitivity analyses of tradeoff(More)
The exchange rates of CO2 and He across the tympanic membrane were estimated in 5 monkeys. For these experiments, the monkey was anesthetized and one arm of a polyethylene "T" tube was introduced into the external canal of the test ear and sealed to the ambient environment with wax. One arm of the T tube was attached to a pressure transducer and the other(More)
The equations of physics for bat-ball collisions were coupled to the physiology of the muscle force-velocity relationship to compute the ideal bat weight for individual baseball players. The results of this coupling suggest that some batters use bats that are too heavy for them, and some batters use bats that are too light, but most experienced batters use(More)
Inflation of the middle ear has long been thought to be beneficial in the treatment of otitis media. We describe a new system of autoinflation based on a modified Valsalva technique consisting of an anesthesia mask and a flowmeter which can be used successfully by children. An objective method to record eustachian tube opening during autoinflation using(More)
Retrospective analysis of somal electrophysiology from intracellularly recorded, physiologically identified afferents demonstrates that neural nets can be readily trained to identify the type of peripheral receptor supplied. Specifically, cat spinal ganglion somata could be identified as innervating muscle spindles, hairs or high-threshold mechanoreceptors.(More)
The effect of changing body position on the Eustachian tube opening time (TOT) and nasal conductance (NC) was investigated in 5 subjects. Eustachian tube function was evaluated using a sonotubometric technique and NC was determined by anterior or posterior rhinomanometry. The results showed that both the TOT and NC were decreased by changing the body(More)
Mean inspiratory nasal resistances and mean axillary sweating rates were recorded bilaterally every 30 minutes for a 5-7 hour period in seven subjects. One subject performed the experiment twice. Nasal resistance was measured using either anterior (n = 5) or posterior (n = 2) rhinomanometry and sweating rate was determined using a filter paper technique.(More)
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