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Kidney is a major target for adverse effects associated with corticosteroids. A microarray dataset was generated to examine changes in gene expression in rat kidney in response to methylprednisolone. Four control and 48 drug-treated animals were killed at 16 times after drug administration. Kidney RNA was used to query 52 individual Affymetrix chips,(More)
Elevated systemic levels of glucocorticoids are causally related to peripheral insulin resistance. The pharmacological use of synthetic glucocorticoids (corticosteroids) often results in insulin resistance/type II diabetes. Skeletal muscle is responsible for close to 80% of the insulin-induced systemic disposal of glucose and is a major target for(More)
The metyrapone test, a useful and reliable procedure for assessing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis function, was applied to schizophrenic patients and healthy controls. 4 out of 18 patients had subnormal responses to metyrapone whereas there were no such cases in the 22 control subjects. 1 schizophrenic patient and 3 control subjects had(More)
BACKGROUND Microarray technology is a powerful and widely accepted experimental technique in molecular biology that allows studying genome wide transcriptional responses. However, experimental data usually contain potential sources of uncertainty and thus many experiments are now designed with repeated measurements to better assess such inherent(More)
The metyrapone test was applied to patients suffering from major depressive illness with melancholia, from mania, and from schizophrenia. Hypoactivity of the HPA axis as assessed by the test appears to occur infrequently in affective disorders and schizophrenia. High normal or exaggerated responses to metyrapone, as observed in Cushing's disease, appear to(More)
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the time course of pharmacological effects of drugs. The field of pharmacodynamic modeling has made many advances, due in part to the relatively recent development of basic and extended mechanism-based models. The purpose of this article is to describe the classic as well as contemporary approaches, with an emphasis on(More)
R2 Investigating the origins of variability in drug response at the single-cell, organ and patient R4: Improving the use of animal models in testing disease hypotheses and developing new drugs R5: Reconnecting tissue physiology with chemistry to facilitate pharmacological experimentation R7: Developing multi-scale computational models of pharmacological(More)
Minimal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (mPBPK) models provide a sensible modeling approach when fitting only plasma (or blood) data yielding physiologically-relevant PK parameters that may provide more practical value than parameters of mammillary models. We propose a second-generation mPBPK model specifically for monoclonal antibodies (mAb) by(More)
Conventional mammillary models are frequently used for pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis when only blood or plasma data are available. Such models depend on the quality of the drug disposition data and have vague biological features. An alternative minimal-physiologically-based PK (minimal-PBPK) modeling approach is proposed which inherits and lumps major(More)
Publicly accessible DNA databases (genome browsers) are rapidly accelerating post-genomic research (see http://www.genome.ucsc.edu/), with integrated genomic DNA, gene structure, EST/ splicing and cross-species ortholog data. DNA databases have relatively low dimensionality; the genome is a linear code that anchors all associated data. In contrast, RNA(More)