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Genome-wide association studies have identified loci underlying human diseases, but the causal nucleotide changes and mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we developed a fine-mapping algorithm to identify candidate causal variants for 21 autoimmune diseases from genotyping data. We integrated these predictions with transcription and cis-regulatory(More)
TNF-α has a multifunctional role in autoimmune diseases as reflected in the variable responses of different human diseases to anti-TNF-α therapy. Recent studies have suggested that TNF-α modulates autoimmunity partially via effects on regulatory T cells (Tregs) and that these effects are mediated through the type II TNFR (TNFR2). We have investigated the(More)
Recent reports suggest that commensal bacteria may play a down-regulatory role in autoimmune disease. In the present studies, we demonstrate that phosphorylated dihydroceramides, uniquely structured lipids derived from the common human oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis and from bacteria commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract and other organs,(More)
Novel phosphorylated dihydroceramide (PDHC) lipids produced by the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis include phosphoethanolamine (PE DHC) and phosphoglycerol dihydroceramides (PG DHC) lipids. These PDHC lipids mediate cellular effects through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) including promotion of IL-6 secretion from dendritic cells and inhibition of(More)
BACKGROUND Abolishing the inhibitory signal of intracellular cAMP by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) is a prerequisite for effector T (Teff) cell function. While PDE4 plays a prominent role, its control of cAMP levels in Teff cells is not exclusive. T cell activation has been shown to induce PDE8, a PDE isoform with 40- to 100-fold greater affinity for cAMP than(More)
Cbl-b is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that negatively regulates T cell activation. Cbl-b(-/-) mice develop spontaneous autoimmunity, and Cbl-b dysregulation has been described in both murine and human autoimmune diseases. Although the mechanisms underlying the development of autoimmunity in Cbl-b(-/-) mice are not yet clear, we have reported that Cbl-b(-/-)(More)
CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Tregs are critical regulators of immune responses and autoimmune diseases. nTregs are thymically derived; iTregs are converted in the periphery from CD4+ CD25- Foxp3- Teffs. Recent studies reported that GALT CD103+ DCs mediated enhanced iTreg conversion via the secretion of RA. However, the factors regulating RA secretion and hence, the(More)
The transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NFκB) is a central regulator of inflammation, and genome-wide association studies in subjects with autoimmune disease have identified a number of variants within the NFκB signaling cascade. In addition, causal variant fine-mapping has demonstrated that autoimmune disease susceptibility variants for multiple(More)
Substantial effort has been made over the last six decades to identify biomarkers for multiple sclerosis that can improve disease diagnosis, predict disease progression, and improve clinical outcomes. However, to date, few of these findings have proven clinically useful. In this review, we address the current state of MS biomarker research. We start by(More)
cAMP signalling is both a major pathway as well as a key therapeutic target for inducing immune tolerance and is involved in Treg cell (regulatory T-cell) function. To achieve potent immunoregulation, cAMP can act through several downstream effectors. One proposed mechanism is that cAMP-mediated suppression, including immunosuppression by Treg cells,(More)