William J. Horrey

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OBJECTIVE The performance costs associated with cell phone use while driving were assessed meta-analytically using standardized measures of effect size along five dimensions. BACKGROUND There have been many studies on the impact of cell phone use on driving, showing some mixed findings. METHODS Twenty-three studies (contributing 47 analysis entries) met(More)
In-vehicle technologies (IVTs) create additional tasks for the driver. To the extent that these devices degrade driving performance, there will be safety concerns. This study examines the effects of display clutter from overlay, display separation, and modality on driving and IVT task performance. In a fixed-base simulator, 22 drivers drove different routes(More)
In 2 experiments, the authors examined how characteristics of a simulated traffic environment and in-vehicle tasks impact driver performance and visual scanning and the extent to which a computational model of visual attention (SEEV model) could predict scanning behavior. In Experiment 1, the authors manipulated task-relevant information bandwidth and task(More)
In the first part of the reported research, 12 instrument-rated pilots flew a high-fidelity simulation, in which air traffic control presentation of auditory (voice) information regarding traffic and flight parameters was compared with advanced display technology presentation of equivalent information regarding traffic (cockpit display of traffic(More)
Concurrent mental workload degrades some aspects of driving performance, but drivers might be able to modify their behaviour adaptively to accommodate cognitive impairments. For example, they might maintain longer vehicle headway in dual-task conditions to compensate for slowed response times. Studies documenting such adaptive behaviours typically use(More)
Today, drivers are faced with many in-vehicle activities that are potentially distracting. In many cases, they are not passive recipients of these tasks; rather, drivers decide whether or not (or how) to perform them. In this study, we examined whether drivers, given knowledge of the upcoming road demands, would strategically delay performing in-vehicle(More)
Many studies have documented the performance decrements associated with driver distractions; however, few have examined drivers' awareness of these distraction effects. The current study measured how well-calibrated drivers are with respect to performance decrements from distracting tasks. In this test track study, 40 younger and older drivers completed a(More)
In some previous simulator studies, we showed that drivers, engaged in a secondary in-vehicle task at different display separations, were able to buffer some aspects of the driving task (e.g., vehicle control), but not others (e.g., hazard response; Horrey & Wickens, 2002, Horrey, Alexander, & Wickens, 2003). We speculate that this pattern of results may be(More)
This paper presents a survey investigating the effects of age, gender and conformity tendency on Chinese pedestrians' intention to cross the road in potentially dangerous situations. A sample of 426 respondents completed a demographic questionnaire, a scale measuring their tendency towards social conformity, and a questionnaire based on the theory of(More)
ARL 1 ABSTRACT Two models of information acquisition in visual scanning are described. A descriptive model identifies the role of event salience, effort, expectancy and value in influencing where and when people look at different channels to sample information in dynamic environments. An optimal prescriptive model accounts for the role of expectancy and(More)