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A broad range of well-structured problems-embracing forms of diagnosis, catalog selection, and skeletal planning-are solved in 'expert systems" by the methods of heuristic classification. These programs have a characteristic inference structure that systematically relates data to a pre-enumerated set of solutions by abstraction, heuristic association, and(More)
Production rules are a popular representation for encoding heuristic knowledge in programs for scientific and medical problem solving. However, experience with one of these programs, MYCIN, indicates that the representation has serious limitations: people other than the original rule authors find it difficult to modify the rule set, and the rules are(More)
A continuing problem in business today is the design of human—computer systems that respect how work actually gets done. The overarching context of work consists of activities, which people conceive as ways of organizing their daily life and especially their interactions with each other. Activities include reading mail, going to workshops, meeting with(More)
Origins The idea of developing a tutoring program from the MYCIN knowledge base was first described by Ted Short-liffe (1974). In fact, it was the mixed-initiative dialogue of the SCHOLAR teaching program (Carbonell, 1970) that inspired Shortliffe to produce the consultation dialogue of MYCIN. He conceived of it as a question-answer program in SCHOLAR's(More)
Activities are located behaviors, taking time, conceived as socially meaningful, and usually involving interaction with tools and the environment. In modeling human cognition as a form of problem solving (goal-directed search and operator sequencing), cognitive science researchers have not adequately studied "off-task" activities (e.g., waiting),(More)
The studies reported here were supported (in part) by: Abstract This paper describes GUIDON-WATCH, a graphic interface that uses multiple windows and a mouse to allow a student to browse a knowledge base and view reasoning processes during diagnostic problem solving. Methods are presented for providing multiple views of hierarchical structures, overlaying(More)