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A broad range of well-structured problems-embracing forms of diagnosis, catalog selection, and skeletal planning-are solved in 'expert systems" by the methods of heuristic classification. These programs have a characteristic inference structure that systematically relates data to a pre-enumerated set of solutions by abstraction, heuristic association, and(More)
Production rules are a popular representation for encoding heuristic knowledge in programs for scientific and medical problem solving. However, experience with one of these programs, MYCIN, indicates that the representation has serious limitations: people other than the original rule authors find it difficult to modify the rule set, and the rules are(More)
Activities are located behaviors, taking time, conceived as socially meaningful, and usually involving interaction with tools and the environment. In modeling human cognition as a form of problem solving (goal-directed search and operator sequencing), cognitive science researchers have not adequately studied "off-task" activities (e.g., waiting),(More)
Origins The idea of developing a tutoring program from the MYCIN knowledge base was first described by Ted Short-liffe (1974). In fact, it was the mixed-initiative dialogue of the SCHOLAR teaching program (Carbonell, 1970) that inspired Shortliffe to produce the consultation dialogue of MYCIN. He conceived of it as a question-answer program in SCHOLAR's(More)
NEOMYCIN it a medical consultation system in which MYCIN's knowledge base is reorganized and extended for use in GUD0N, a teaching program. The new system constitutes a psychological model for doing diagnosis, designed to provide a basis for Interpreting student behavior and teaching diagnostic strategy. The model separates out Kinds of Knowledge that are(More)
Expert systems are generally described by a mixture of terms that confuse implementation language with knowledge structure and the search process. This confusion makes it difficult to analyze new problems and to derive a set of knowledge engineering principles. A rigorous, logical description of expert systems reveals that a small set of terms and relations(More)