William J. Carmen

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Why do the young of cooperative breeders--species in which more than two individuals help raise offspring at a single nest--delay dispersal and live in groups? Answering this deceptively simple question involves examining the costs and benefits of three alternative strategies: (1) dispersal and attempting to breed, (2) dispersal and floating, and (3)(More)
A tradeoff between growth and reproduction, often inferred from an inverse correlation between these two variables, is a fundamental paradigm of life-history evolution. Oak species provide a unique test of this relationship because different species mature acorns either in the year of pollination or in the year after pollination. This difference allows for(More)
Annually variable and synchronous seed production, or masting behavior, is a widespread phenomenon with dramatic effects on wildlife populations and their associated communities. Proximally, masting is often correlated with environmental factors and most likely involves differential pollination success and resource allocation, but little is known about how(More)
phenology confirms pollen limitation in a wind-pollinated tree Walter D. Koenig*, Kyle A. Funk, Thomas S. Kraft, William J. Carmen, Brian C. Barringer and Johannes M. H. Knops Cornell Lab of Ornithology, 159 Sapsucker Woods Road, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA; Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA; School of Biological(More)
We examined the relationship between acorn mass and number in valley oaks (Quercus lobata) over 4 years in central coastal California. Despite considerable variation in acorn size among both trees and years, trees produced acorns of the same size relative to other trees in different years. Across years, the relationship between acorn mass and acorn crop(More)
We investigated arboreal removal and insect damage to acorns in an undisturbed oak woodland in central coastal California. Arboreal seed removal was determined for four to eight individual Quercus lobata trees over a period of 14 years by comparing visual estimates of the acorn crop with the number of acorns caught in seed traps. Insect damage was assessed(More)
W. D. Koenig (wdk4@cornell.edu), Lab. of Ornithology and Dept of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell Univ., 159 Sapsucker Woods Rd., Ithaca, NY 14850, USA. A. H. Krakauer, Section of Evolution and Ecology, Univ. of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA. W. B. Monahan, Audubon California, 4225 Hollis St., Emeryville, CA 94608, USA. J.(More)
We measured acorn production of five species of oaks (genus Quercus) over a ten year period (1980-1989) at Hastings Reservation in Monterey County, California. Crop production was highly variable and generally asynchronous between species. Variance in crop size decreased directly with increasing species diversity across sub-areas within the study site.(More)
We examined the importance of pollen limitation to variation in acorn production of three species of California oaks (Quercus lobata, Q. douglasii, and Q. agrifolia) by testing for relationships between phenology and acorn production. Within years, trees flowering closer to the mean flowering date of the population produced significantly more acorns in two(More)
Physiological variables were compared among women who had never used oral contraceptives, past users, and current users. Randomly selected subjects were aged 30 to 59 years. Blood was sampled for determination of blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglyceride, and plasma insulin concentration. Summed postchallenge glucose and insulin values were used in(More)