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1. The finding that the plant is the genetic determinant of leghaemoglobin production in legume nodules was further tested by inoculating snake beans with two strains of Rhizobium selected to give large genetic differences. Carbohydrate requirement patterns, immunological techniques and DNA base ratio determinations were used to demonstrate genetic(More)
Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy(More)
The symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium sp. NGR234 carries a cluster of genes that encodes components of a bacterial type III secretion system (TTSS). In both animal and plant pathogens, the TTSS is an essential component of pathogenicity. Here, we show that secretion of at least two proteins (y4xL and NolX) is controlled by the TTSS of NGR234 and occurs after(More)
Eukaryotes often form symbioses with microorganisms. Among these, associations between plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria are responsible for the nitrogen input into various ecological niches. Plants of many different families have evolved the capacity to develop root or stem nodules with diverse genera of soil bacteria. Of these, symbioses between legumes(More)
Access to mineral nitrogen often limits plant growth, and so symbiotic relationships have evolved between plants and a variety of nitrogen-fixing organisms. These associations are responsible for reducing 120 million tonnes of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia each year. In agriculture, independence from nitrogenous fertilizers expands crop production and(More)
Rhizobium species strain NGR234 is the most promiscuous known rhizobium. In addition to the non-legume Parasponia andersonii, it nodulates at least 70 genera of legumes. Here we show that the nodulation genes of this bacterium determine the production of a large family of Nod-factors which are N-acylated chitin pentamers carrying a variety of substituents.(More)
Life at the atmosphere-lithosphere boundary is an ancient terrestrial niche that is sparsely covered by thin subaerial biofilms. The microbial inhabitants of these biofilms (a) have adapted to all types of terrestrial/subaerial stresses (e.g., desiccation, extreme temperatures, low nutrient availability, intense solar radiation), (b) interact with minerals(More)
The nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacterium Rhizobium species NGR234 secretes, via a type III secretion system (TTSS), proteins called Nops (nodulation outer proteins). Abolition of TTSS-dependent protein secretion has either no effect or leads to a change in the number of nodules on selected plants. More dramatically, Nops impair nodule development on(More)
Based on the DNA sequence of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium strain NGR234, we predicted potential rearrangements generated by homologous recombination. All predicted rearrangements were identified experimentally by using a PCR-based methodology. Thus, the predicted and the actual dynamic maps of the replicon coincide. By using an approach that does not(More)
Flavonoids secreted by host plants activate, in conjunction with the transcriptional activator NodD, nod gene expression of rhizobia resulting in the synthesis of Nod factors, which trigger nodule organogenesis. Interestingly, addition of inducing flavonoids also stimulates the production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in several rhizobia.(More)