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Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy(More)
Eukaryotes often form symbioses with microorganisms. Among these, associations between plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria are responsible for the nitrogen input into various ecological niches. Plants of many different families have evolved the capacity to develop root or stem nodules with diverse genera of soil bacteria. Of these, symbioses between legumes(More)
Access to mineral nitrogen often limits plant growth, and so symbiotic relationships have evolved between plants and a variety of nitrogen-fixing organisms. These associations are responsible for reducing 120 million tonnes of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia each year. In agriculture, independence from nitrogenous fertilizers expands crop production and(More)
Based on the DNA sequence of the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium strain NGR234, we predicted potential rearrangements generated by homologous recombination. All predicted rearrangements were identified experimentally by using a PCR-based methodology. Thus, the predicted and the actual dynamic maps of the replicon coincide. By using an approach that does not(More)
Most of the bacterial genes involved in nodulation of legumes (nod, nol and noe ) as well as nitrogen fixation (nif and fix ) are carried on pNGR234a, the 536 kb symbiotic plasmid (pSym) of the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. NGR234. Putative transcription regulators comprise 24 of the predicted 416 open reading frames (ORFs) contained on this replicon.(More)
Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 possesses a functional type three secretion system (TTSS), through which a number of proteins, called nodulation outer proteins (Nops), are delivered to the outside of the cell. A major constraint to the identification of Nops is their low abundance in the supernatants of NGR234 strains grown in culture. To overcome this(More)
Symbiotic DNA sequences involved in nodulation by Rhizobium must include genes responsible for recognizing homologous hosts. We sought these genes by mobilizing the symbiotic plasmid of a broad host-range Rhizobium MPIK3030 (= NGR234) that can nodulate Glycine max, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, Vigna unguiculata, etc., into two Nod- Rhizobium mutants as well(More)
Symbiosis-stimulated chitinase isoenzymes of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Abstract and to be colonized by arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi (Harrison, 1997). Often, nodule formation by a Isoforms of endochitinase in soybean were studied in given bacterial strain is restricted to only a few host plant relation to root symbiosis. Five selected cultivars(More)
Traditionally, new loci involved in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis have been identified by transposon mutagenesis and/or complementation. Wide dispersal of the symbiotic loci in Rhizobium species NGR234, as well as the large number of potential host-plants to be screened, greatly reduces the efficiency of these techniques. As an alternate strategy designed(More)
The type three secretion system (TTSS) encoded by pNGR234a, the symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, is responsible for the flavonoid- and NodD1-dependent secretion of nodulation outer proteins (Nops). Abolition of secretion of all or specific Nops significantly alters the nodulation ability of NGR234 on many of its hosts. In the closely(More)