William I. Norwood

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Conjoined twins occur in approximately one in 50,000 or so births, and most do not survive. The authors report herein their experience with 13 conjoined twins over the last 30 years, involving those of the following forms: thoracopagus (4 cases), omphalopagus (1 case), ischiopagus (4 cases), pygopagus (1 case), craniopagus (1 case), and incomplete or(More)
The mortality rate of the Fontan operation for heart malformations with a single or dominant ventricle has been reduced by dividing the procedure into two stages. The hemi-Fontan procedure allows early reduction of the volume work of the single ventricle and remodeling of ventricular geometry before a completion Fontan operation. Despite the improvement of(More)
BACKGROUND Diastolic run off into the pulmonary circulation and labile coronary perfusion are thought to contribute to morbidity and mortality after the Norwood procedure (NP). We compared outcomes from the use of a RV to PA conduit (RV/PA) or a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (BTS), physiologically distinct sources of pulmonary blood flow. METHODS AND(More)
At the time of surgical repair, a lung biopsy was performed on patients with congenital heart defects who either had pulmonary hypertension or in whom it would be likely to develop if the lesion were not corrected. Pulmonary vascular changes, assessed morphometrically and also according to the classification of Heath and Edwards (Circulation 18: 533, 1958),(More)
Aortic atresia is a form of hypoplastic left heart syndrome always complicated by associated severe hypoplasia of the ascending aorta and various degrees of mitral valve and left ventricular hypoplasia. At present it is a universally fatal lesion in early infancy. This is a report of a new palliative procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome that has(More)
BACKGROUND The balance of systemic, pulmonary, and coronary blood flow after the Norwood operation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is critical to early survival. We hypothesized that a right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit (instead of a systemic to pulmonary artery shunt) would result in hemodynamic changes consistent with a more stable(More)
Recently, the robotic single-site platform has been used to ameliorate the difficulties seen in single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILC) while preserving the benefits of standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical outcomes of a large series of single-incision robotic cholecystectomy (SIRC). Medical records(More)
OBJECTIVE This pharmacologic protection trial was conducted to test the hypothesis that allopurinol, a scavenger and inhibitor of oxygen free radical production, could reduce death, seizures, coma, and cardiac events in infants who underwent heart surgery using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). DESIGN This was a single center, randomized,(More)
Since 1985, 381 patients with various cardiac malformations that share the central common feature of only one effective ventricle have been treated with some modification of Fontan's operation. Since 1989, the Fontan operation has been staged by associating the superior vena cava with the branch pulmonary arteries (hemi-Fontan) initially followed, some(More)